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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (47)
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1

Five problems each culture must address:

What is the
1. Human orientation to activity?
2. Relationship of humans to each other?
3. Nature of Human beings?
4. Relationship of humans to the natural world?
5. Orientation of humans to time?

2

Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck four conclusions about the functions of cultural patterns

1. People in all cultures face common human problems for which they must find solutions.
2. The range of alternative solutions to a cultures problems is limited.
3. Within a given culture, there will be preferred solutions, which most people within the culture will select, but there will also be people who choose other options.
4. Over time, the preferred solutions shape the cultures basic assumptions about beliefs, values, norms, and social practices

3

Activity Orientation

How the people of a culture view human actions and the expression of self through activities

4

Social Relations Orientation

How the people in a culture organize themselves and relate to one another

5

Self Orientation

How peoples identities are formed, wether the culture views the self as changeable, what motivates the individuals actions, and the kinds of people who are valued and respected

6

World Orientation

Cultural patterns that tell people how to locate themselves in relation to the spiritual world, nature, and other living things

7

Time Orientation

How people conceptualize time

8

Cultural Differences (Hofstede)

An approach to understanding the range of cultural differences. Based on the assertion that people carry mental programs or "software of the mind"

9

Power Distance

The degree to which the cultures believes that institutional and organizational power should be distributed unequally and the decisions of the power holders should be challenged or accepted

10

Uncertainty-Avoidence

Extent by which the culture feels threatened by ambiguous, uncertain situations and tries to avoid them by establishing more structure

11

Masculinity-Femininity

Indicates the degree to which a culture values "masculine" behaviors, such as assertiveness and acquisition of wealth, or "feminine" behaviors such as caring for others and the quality of life

12

Individualism- Collectivism

Degree to which a culture relies on and has allegiance to the self or the group

13

Indulgence

View that pleasure and the enjoyment of life are very desirable, puts focus on happiness as a way of life

14

Restraint

Focuses on self discipline and believe that individuals should curb their urges and desires for unrestrained fun

15

High-context Cultures

Used in high-context cultures, in which most of the meaning is either implied by physical setting or is presumed to be part of the individuals internalized beliefs, values, norms, and social practices
EX: Japanese, African American, Mexican

16

Low-context Cultures

Used in low-context cultures, in which a majority of the information is vested in the explicit code
EX: German, Swedish, American

17

Unexamined Cultural Identity

Stage where One's cultural characteristics are taken for granted, and consequently there is little interest in exploring cultural issues

18

Cultural Identity Search

A process of exploration and questioning about ones culture in order to learn more about it and to understand the implications of membership in that culture

19

Cultural Identity Achievement

A clear, confident acceptance of oneself and an internalization of ones cultural identity

20

Ethnocentrisim

To draw from personal experiences to understand and evaluate the motivations of others

21

Stereotyping

Information Processing results in a simplification of the world, so that prior experiences are used as the basis for determining both the categories and the attributes of the events

22

Prejudice

Negative attributes toward other people that are based on faulty and inflexible stereotypes

23

Discrimination

"Prejudice in action"

24

Racism

To categorize people who are culturally different in terms of their physical traits, such as skin color, hair color, and texture, facial structure, and eye shape

25

Levels of Racism

Individual and Institutional Level

26

Symbolic Racism

"Modern racism" members of a group with political and economical power believe that members of some other group threaten their traditional values

27

Tokenism

When individuals do not perceive themselves as prejudiced because they make small concessions to, while holding basically negative attitudes toward, members of the other group

28

Aversive Racism

Negative beliefs and feelings about members of a particular race, often as a result of childhood socialization experiences

29

General Likes and Dislikes

Can form as a basis for a prejudicial attitude simply because the group displays behaviors that another group does not like

30

Degree of Unfamiliarity

Simply responding to unfamiliar people may create negative attitudes because of lack of experience with the characteristics of their group