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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (29)
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1

Caravaggio, Conversion of Paul, 1604

Italy

2

Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and Holofernes, c. 1614–20

Italy

3

Annibale Carracci, Loves of the Gods, Farnese Palace, 1597–1601

Italy

4

G. Bernini, David, 1623

Italy

5

G. Bernini, Cornaro Chapel, St. Theresa in Ecstasy, 1645–52

Italy

6

F Borromini, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (St Charles at the Four Fountains), Rome, 1665-70

Italy

7

J. Ribera, Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew, 1639

Spain

8

Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas–The Maids of Honor, c. 1656

Spain

9

Peter Paul Rubens, Arrival of Marie de’ Medici in France, 1622–23

Flanders

10

Frans Hals, Malle Babbe, c. 1650

Holland

11

Rembrandt, Night Watch, 1642

Holland

12

J. Van Ruisdael, View of Haarlem with Bleaching Fields, c. 1665-70

Holland

13

J. Vermeer, The Letter, 1666

Holland

14

Nicholas Poussin, Et in Arcadia Ego, 1650

France

15

Pierre Puget, Milo of Crotona, 1671–82

France

16

Perrault, East Façade of the Louvre, Paris, 1667–70

France

17

Jean-Antoine Watteau, Pilgrimage to Cythera, 1717

Rococo 18th Century

18

Thomas Gainsborough, Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, 1785–87

Rococo 18th Century

 

19

Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784

Neo-Classicism 18th Century

20

Benjamin West, Death of General Wolfe, 1770

Neo-Classicism 18th Century

21

Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, near Charlottesville, Virginia, 1770–84; 1796–1806

Neo-Classicism 18th Century

22

ESSAY 1

Compare and contrast these two works from the 17th century. Comment on style, use of space, color and light effects, subject matter, symbolism, etc. Comment also on the historical/social issues that explain the different approaches to art in the two geographical regions represented. How does each work reflect the issues of the region and time in which it was produced?

Baroque: exaggerated motion and clear detail used to produce drama, exuberance, and grandeur

Strong Influence of Council of Trent, traditional subject matter, realistic style, stimulates viewer spiritually. "Counter-reformation" Catholics predominance and centrality. Didactic.

Caravaggio & Spain: ultra-realism, not crowded, dark background, extreme chiaroscuro, dramatic, strong, no props, bright light, lower class, movement, ovals, genre, naturalism, brutal harsh, diagonals, emotions

Bernini Italy: Italy was also later on anti-lower class and more eclectic, Raphael influenced, non-christian, monumental dynamic, is moving, powerful

Flanders: painterly, thick and quick, exaggerated life, heroic, monumental, flash & bling beyond fancy, unprecedented magnificence, divine right for royals, self-promotion.

Holland: genre, Protestant, conservative, prosperous, Calvinists, open art market, competition, specialists, moral warnings, gritty realism, dramatic light- Caravaggio, individualism, and poses, group portraiture, powerful diagonals. the letter is different, wealth, alluding to Holland, single natural light source.

France: early: 1st Poussin: Carracci and Raphael, dramatic, dynamic, painterly and soft

later: emphasis on landscape, no hazy atmosphere, less diagonals, vibrant colors, genre avoided elite intellectuals, an ideal place. Colbert (tyrant) director of art, his taste only. Bernini influenced, movement dynamic, classical feel, Michaelangelo figures.

Architecture: classical theories and ideas, stoical, lacking drama, not very stimulating, appropriate for time and place

23

ESSAY 2

Compare and contrast these two works from the 18th century.  Each was motivated by certain issues or ideals and beliefs. Identify what the two periods were trying to communicate and how the works reflect the issues of the day. What was the purpose of each work? Comment on the stylistic sources for each painting.

Rococo: a lighter version of baroque, not same emphasis on Louis XIV, finished French and U.S. Revolution, a revival of movement and color. Less formal, severe, less heavy-handed, charming, scenes difficult to understand, feathery, painterly approach (Ruben) fancy fabrics, otherworldly quality, not genre but has nothing to do with other categories. Non-subject matter, no message (religious/moral/political), art for a very elite class, class of leisure and pleasure. Decorative. Young aristocrats. Influenced by Raphael, color and painterly style. Ballet-like, quick sketch-like quality. Make-believe. Bernini dynamic figures. 

Neo-Classicism: age of enlightenment, belief in progress, middle class, science instead of superstition, rationalism, humanism, art for the people. Harmony, balance, and perfection. Anti-aristocrats, revolution. Rejects all rococo, classical subjects, moral themes, Poussin, Carracci, Raphael. Roman history, contemporary message. Severe, crystal clear,  tightly focused. Sharp contours, crisp frozen light. Intellectual approach. Watteau brushstrokes, dramatic. Christian martyr or St., baroque poses. Religious and political. Simple clothes, figurative, symbolic, posed, theatrical. Commemorating individuals, symmetrical. Rococo "artificial taste"

24

Painterly

taking advantage of liquid properties of paint

25

Impasto

 lively surface, thick or thin the pigment is on canvas

26

Musical ‘modes’

composition, colors, gestures, facial expressions all determined by subject manner

27

Stoicism

logic, order and reason, seriousness in life to contribute to the community

28

Chiaroscuro

is the use of strong contrasts between light and dark, usually bold contrasts affecting a whole composition.

29

Tenebrism

dramatic illumination is a style of painting using profoundly pronounced chiaroscuro, where there are violent contrasts of light and dark, and where darkness becomes a dominating feature of the image.