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1
Q

Canine Parvovirus

A

Non-Enveloped Virus
• Early replication in lymphoid tissue
• Later invasion of rapidly dividing cells in intestinal crypt epithelium and bone marrow
Fetus, intestinal epithelium, hematopoetic system
Cause: enteritis and myocarditis
Fecal oral
• Virus is shed 4-5 days after exposure (prior to clinical signs) and up to 10 days after recovery
• Enters cells via cell mediated endocytosis
• Leukopenia and lymphopenia decrease ability for host response
ELISA
Survival months to years away from sunlight and disinfectants

2
Q

Campylobacter

A

Spiral, Gram (-) Bacteria
• Intestinal Epithelial cells
• Cells of the lamina propria Fecal oral
• Persistant in host, part of normal flora
• Produces enterotoxins and cytotoxins
• Has cell adherence properties
• Enters cell via receptor mediated endocytosis
• Can persist for a long time in feces, milk, water, urine
• May become dormant and then be reactivated

3
Q

Rhodococcus equi

A

Gram (+) Bacteria
Macrophages *Animals exposed all the time

  • Animals that lack IFN-y increases risk of clinical disease
  • Foals 1-4 mo most susceptable
    • Large amount of bacteria shed in infected foals
    • Host factor associated with disease: bacterial replication increase when macrophage fails to create a phagolysosome – no respiratory burst
    • Ubiquitous in environment
4
Q

Equine Influenza

A

Enveloped Virus
• maintained in the equine population via clinical cases and inapparent infection in susceptible horses
• Host factor for disease: exposure to naïve population
• Antigenic drift common
• Poor – enveloped virus

5
Q

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)

A

Enveloped Virus

RNA virus Macrophage cell tropism – viremia spread (Trojan horse concept) Direct Contact (Oral, respiratory, semen)

Indirect Contact via fomites
• Highly persistent (not latent) in pig
• Demonstrates a high degree of mutation – helps evade immune system
• Expect to see a humoral (antibodies) and cell mediated immune response
• Decreased stability in environment – enveloped virus

6
Q

Ascaris suum

A

mucosa of the small intestine
Fecal oral

Paratenic via Earthworm • Direct life cycle
• Parasites migrate through tissues resulting in secondary bacterial infection in lung
• Adult worms live in small intestine
• Infection induces Th2 response that promotes EOSINOPHILLA
• 2nd stage larvae infective to pig
• chitin ‘shell’ protects from thermal and environmental degradation
• protein coat makes parasite sticky to prevent washing away

7
Q

Canine Influenza

A

Enveloped Virus
Direct contact (aerosol or droplets)
• Canine influenza is not persistent in the host – persistent within the population
• Viral shedding occurs first 2-4 days during incubation, but can shed for 10-14 days
• Host does not shed virus after the clinical symptoms conclude
• Does not survive well in environment – can live on surfaces for 24-48 hours

8
Q

Equine Infectious Anermia

A
Retrovirus, Lentiviris
(Enveloped?)	Macrophages	Direct contact 
(Flies– intermittent feeding)	
•	Exhibits Viremia
•	Can cause both acute and chronic infections
•	Tests: Coggins Test - Abs
9
Q

Toxocara Canis

A

Parasite
* Roundworm GI tract Direct:
Fecal Oral
THIS IS ZOONOTIC!

Vertical transmission from dam

Horizontal transmission Fecal oral
• Puppies most severe in young puppies
• Shedding of adult worms in feces or vomit may occur at 4-6mo of age
• Eggs resistant to harsh environmental conditions and disinfectants
• Egg pitted shell and sticky protein prevent washing away
• An adult female worm can lay 85,000 eggs per day! 

10
Q

Tapeworms

A

Tapeworms
GI Tract Fecal oral?
• Individual proglottids are shed in feces of infected animals
• Hosts are generally asymptomatic

11
Q

Porcine Epidemic diarrhea Virus (PEDV)

A

Enveloped Virus
Epithelial cells of Small intestine and colonic villi Oral contamination from food or environment/

fecal oral
• Disease causes profuse watery pale white diarrhea
• Helical nucleocapsid made by viral N proteins present
• N proteins are known to antagonize interferon production to help virus evade the immune system
• Easily destroyed by disinfectants and dehydrating protocols

12
Q

6 to knows for all diseases

ADTPDP

A

Agent characteristics, disease(s) caused by agent, transmission of disease (lifecycle for parasites), pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention and control

13
Q

ascarids in general

A
Who: Young animals of *every species*
PPP: Short ~ 1mo (except A. Suum, P. Equorum)
Life Cycle: Direct
Infective Stage: Egg / L2 in egg
Eggs
Shape: Sphere or oval
Shell: Thick, pitted
Short-term desiccation and freezing resistance
Environmental development → infective

Adults
Large, spaghetti
1 pair = 100K eggs/d
Where: Small Intestine

Diagnostic Tests: fecal flotation

14
Q

Ascara suum

A

Swine roundworms
Direct
Hosts: Pigs
Paratenic host: earthworms, dung beetles
Fecal/oral/Paratenic
hepatic -tracheal migration
L2 in the egg infective
PPP 56 days (8 weeks) - unusual for ascarids
Clinical signs: Pneumonia, weight loss, biliary obstruction +/- jaundice, “thumps” or cough in a lighter infection
Diagnosis: Via a fecal test with zinc sulfate or magnesium, or on necropsy (milk spots, visible worms in the small intestine)
Prevention and control
Easier to prevent than to treat. More common on overcrowded, open pasture settings. Deworm sows before moving to a clean pasture, and before farrowing. Routine deworming recommended.
Not zoonotic
Distinguishing feature/hint to remember

***Unusual PPP for ascarids, no transmammary, no transplacental, no percutaneous transmission, milk spots

15
Q

Parascarus equorum

A

Equine roundworms
Direct
Horses (usually foals)
Fecal oral
Ingestion of egg, develop in sm intestine (Hepatic-Tracheal)
10-15 weeks
Coughing/fever, nasal discharge, poor growth, colic, summer colds in foals, rough hair coat, colic
Fecal float (Primary), seeing worms (on necropsy)
Pasture management, prevent eggs from getting eaten
Not zoonotic

***Horizontal transmission, no vertical

16
Q

Toxocara canis

A

Canine roundworms
Direct. Eggs shed in feces, can be ingested by dogs, or by paratenic hosts.
Definitive: dogs. Paratenic: small mammals (e.g. rabbits).
Per-os, transplacental, transmammary. Once in animal, can do hepatotracheal or somatic migration depending on age of dog
Eggs are infective after 2-4 weeks in envt
PPP: 30-35 days
Newborn: verminous pneumonia, pulmonary hemorrhage.
Nursing puppies: potbellied appearance, vomiting, lethargic, dull.
Adults: usually asymptomatic
Fecal float.
Clinical signs. Worms visible in vomitus or diarrhea. History (if bitch has hx of passing on larvae to multiple litters)
Reduce environmental contamination. Reduce exposure. Reduce contact w/ paratenic hosts. Treat puppies at 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks. Treat lactating bitch @ 2-3 wks post-whelping
Yes zoonotic- can cause Visceral Larva Migrans (VLM)

***Potbellied appearance. Hepatotracheal and Somatic migration. Main source of infection in adult dogs: paratenic hosts.

17
Q

Toxocara cati

A

Feline roundworms
Direct
Cats are definitive hosts. Paratenic hosts are small mammals.
Per-os (affects all ages), transmammary (most common route of infection for kittens), paratenic (no transplacental)

4-5 weeks
Verminous pneumonia, eosinophilia, vomiting, diarrhea, intestinal obstruction, pot bellied appearance in kittens, unthrifty
Fecal floatation, identification of large, white worms in vomit or stool with cervical alae
Environmental control
Yes zoonotic

***No transplacental migration.

18
Q

Heterakis Spp. (Bird)

A
Poultry cecal worm
direct
Paratenic: earthworm
Definitive host: domestic and wild fowl
Fecal oral
Infective egg (L2)

Fecal float for eggs and necropsy for large worms in cecum
not zoonotic

***Eggs can act as a vehicle for Blackhead (Histomonas melagridis)

19
Q

Canine Hookworms

A

Canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense- causes cutaneous larval migrans in humans, or Uncinaria stenocephala)
Direct
Paratenic hosts- mice, rats, beetles and roaches. Definitive hosts- dogs (there is also feline hookworm). I think humans would be an accidental host- but not 100% sure.
Per os, paratenic, transmammary (MOST IMPORTANT IN PUPPIES), transplacental (not as common), percutaneous.
Free larvae (L3)
Short! 2-3 weeks
BLOOD LOSS. Pale mucous membranes from anemia. Bleeding, malabsorption, pain. SI diarrhea.

Fecal flotation!!! Can do a hookworm ELISA- only identifies protein on adult worms. Eggs are morulated, thin-shelled, and ovoid.
Sanitation around home and routine fecal exams.
YES ZOONOTIC

***Blood suckers. Transmammary is most important ROI in puppies. THEY CAN GO THROUGH SKIN. Iron deficiency anemia.

20
Q

Ruminant Hot Complex

A
gastroenteritis
direct
Definitive: ruminants
Fecal oral
L3 larvae

***There is no transplacental or transmammary infection.

21
Q

Ostertagia Ostertagi

A

Brown stomach worm
Direct
Definitive: cattle
Fecal oral
L3 larvae
3 weeks
Young animals. Hypoalbuminemia. Diarrhea, weight loss, inappetance, bottle jaw (hypoalbuminemia). Moroccan leather gastric gland appearance. Type 1: bright green diarrhea. Type 2- hypoalbuminemia.
Egg looks like hookworm egg, so if we see hookworm eggs on a ruminant, it is strongyle type so HOT. Type 1- fecal egg counts. Type 2- fecal egg counts can be negative.
Anthelminthics. Type 2 is harder to treat than type 1. Need to address the hypobiotic larvae. Move to pasture not grazed by cattle the same year. Move animals off pasture and graze pasture with sheep or goats until June.
not zoonotic

***Most important nematode in cattle worldwide! Can become hypobiotic.

22
Q

Haemonchua contortus

A
arber pole worm
direct
Definitive: sheep, goats, camelids
Fecal oral
L3
18-21 days
Anemia, blood loss edema (hypoproteinemia), dehydration, weight loss. NOT DIARRHEA.
FEC and FAMACHA
Blood transfusions.

***Anemia. No diarrhea.

23
Q

N. Helvetianus

A
Thin necked intestinal worm
 Direct-similar to other strongyles
 Cattle
 Fecal-oral
 Egg (larval stage developing inside)
 15-26 days
 Larval stages can cause damage to intestinal wall resulting in unthriftiness, poor weight gain, and diarrhea. Large worm burden may retard growth in younger animals
 Fecal float or quantitative fecal floatation 

***Eggs are HUGE!

24
Q

Equine Large strongyles

A
Colic and thrombocolic
direct
Definitive: horses and donkeys
Fecal oral
L3
6-7 months
Can result in severe blood loss and ulceration. May see thrombi formation.

***Migrate to the root of the cranial mesenteric artery

25
Q

Equine Small Strongyles

A
Cyathostomes
Direct
Definitive: Horses and donkeys
Fecal oral
L3
6-14 weeks
Dependent on worm burden and infected with larvae or adults. Neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, acute diarrhea, larvae in feces.
Eggs in feces cannot differentiate species.

Good management and strategic deworming program with FEC. Strict sanitation. Good pasture management. Compost manure. Good nutrition.
not zoonotic

26
Q

Oxyuris Equi (equine pinworms)

A
pinworms
direct
Definitive: equids
Fecal oral
Infective egg (L3)
5 months
Perianal itching, broken tail head hairs
Clinical signs and history. Double stick tape. 
Remove egg masses with soap and warm water, sanitation in stalls and paddocks, treat infected animals.
Not zoonotic

***Damage to tail hair.

27
Q

Trichurus vulpis

A

Whipworm
Direct.
Definitive host- dog
Fecal oral
Egg
Long. 74-90 days.
LI diarrhea (bloody). Pale and tacky mucous membranes. Rough and dull hair coat. Abdominal pain. Anemia. Less severe anemia than seen with hookworms.
IDK if this will help anyone, but I remember the egg shape by “I TRIed to throw a football and failed” lol. They will not be vomited because they are in the LI. Look like whips.
Centrifugal fecal flotation with a sugar solution. ELISA for adults. Don’t float well with normal Zn sulfate solutions.
Remove feces after defecation, concrete all areas of grass, burn backyard.
uncommon to be zoonotic

***Slash and tear mucosa- more blood loss! Egg looks like a football.

28
Q

Fascioloides magna

A

Deer flukes, giant liver flukes, american liver fluke. Widespread liver damage. Can result in Red water disease.
Indirect - requires the snail as the intermediate host
Definitive: white tail deer and other cervids
Accidental and aberrant hosts: cattle, sheep, goats, moose, alpaca, llama, ruminants
Intermediate host: snails
Fecal oral
Cercaria
varies
Deer: none
Cattle: may see eosinophilia and increased liver enzymes. If diagnosed with Red wter disease, will see blood in urine.
Total destruction of liver parenchyma. Fluke puke. Can try fecal sedimentation in cattle and cervids. Cattle: can see eosinophilia and increased liver enzymes.
Resistant to treatment because drugs target adults. Treat in late fall (when flukes mature)!!
Not zoonotic

***North of I-94.

29
Q

Fascioloides magna

A

Deer flukes, giant liver flukes, american liver fluke. Widespread liver damage. Can result in Red water disease.
Indirect - requires the snail as the intermediate host
Definitive: white tail deer and other cervids
Accidental and aberrant hosts: cattle, sheep, goats, moose, alpaca, llama, ruminants
Intermediate host: snails
Fecal oral
Cercaria
varies
Deer: none
Cattle: may see eosinophilia and increased liver enzymes. If diagnosed with Red wter disease, will see blood in urine.
Total destruction of liver parenchyma. Fluke puke. Can try fecal sedimentation in cattle and cervids. Cattle: can see eosinophilia and increased liver enzymes.
Resistant to treatment because drugs target adults. Treat in late fall (when flukes mature)!!
Not zoonotic

***North of I-94.

30
Q

Nanophyetus salmonicola

A

Salmon Poisoning Disease
indirect
Definitive host: fish eating mammals and some birds
1st intermediate host: Snail
2nd intermediate host: salmonid fish and Pacific Giant Salamander
Fecal oral (definitive hosts become infected by eating fish containing metacercariae in tissues)

5-7 days
In fish: kills small fish. See exophthalmia (bulging eyes), intestinal prolapse, damage to fins and gills, loss of equilibrium.
Adult flukes do not cause clinical signs except in heavy infections.
Dogs: can see Salmon Poisoning Disease- hemorrhagic enteritis, high fever, enlarged lymph nodes, macrophages are the cellular tropism***
Fecal sedimentation.
Cook fish.

Potentially- see salmon disease in people

***Only in the Pacific Northwest. Egg has a small blunt point pole and is yellowish brown.

31
Q

dipylidium canium

A

Common tapeworm, flea tapeworm
Indirect
Definitive: dogs, cats, humans
Intermediate: dog and cat fleas
Fecal oral.
Larval stage is infective state that lives in the intermediate host.
2-4 weeks
Minimal clinical signs. May see perianal itching and flea infestation.
Uncooked rice grains or cucumber seeds in stool. Place on glass slide, observe egg packets under microscope. Fecal float- don’t always float well.
Clean up feces right away. Flea preventive.
Yes ZOONOTIC

***Most common tapeworm of cats and dogs in North America!

32
Q

dipylidium caninum

A

Common tapeworm, flea tapeworm
Indirect
Definitive: dogs, cats, humans
Intermediate: dog and cat fleas
Fecal oral.
Larval stage is infective state that lives in the intermediate host.
2-4 weeks
Minimal clinical signs. May see perianal itching and flea infestation.
Uncooked rice grains or cucumber seeds in stool. Place on glass slide, observe egg packets under microscope. Fecal float- don’t always float well.
Clean up feces right away. Flea preventive.
Yes ZOONOTIC

***Most common tapeworm of cats and dogs in North America!

33
Q

Anoplocephala spp.

A
Indirect
Definitive: equids
Intermediate: Oribatid mite
Fecal oral
Cysticercoid (she had this big on it’s own slide, so I would probs know it!)
4-6 weeks
Asymptomatic. May see digestive problems or catarrhal enteritis.
History and season. 

Not zoonotic

***Common in upper midwest! Look like zombie fingers on necropsy.

34
Q

Monieza spp.

A

indirect
Definitive: Small ruminants
Intermediate: ORIBATID MITE

6-7 weeks
GI disturbance.
Proglottids in feces.

35
Q

taenia solium

A

Pork tapeworm
Can result in neurocysticercosis in humans.
Indirect
Definitive: humans
Intermediate: cattle
Aberrant: humans
Per os. Larvae goes into tissues, and we eat those tissues.
Cysticerci in muscle (definitive). Egg form (intermediate → aberrant)- end up in brains.

Humans as definitive host- none, maybe mild GI signs.
Humans as the aberrant host- neurological signs
Pigs- asymptomatic. Lesions found at slaughter.

Fecal flotation for eggs. MRI, CT, serology for exposure.

Cook your meat!!! Sanitation. Don’t allow humans to defecate in areas pigs live.
yes ZOONOTIC

36
Q

Taenia saginata

A

indirect
Definitive: humans
Intermediate: cattle

She said this one isn’t as important to remember because humans do not have abberant infections.

37
Q

Echinococcosis spp.

A

Cystic echinococcosis and Alveolar echinococcosis
Indirect
Direct host: carnivore infected by ingesting cyst (Dogs)
Indirect host: herbivore/roden infected by ingesting eggs (sheep, goats, pigs, moose, humans)

Feeding on other animals or being on contaminated pasture (fecal oral)
Cyst

Direct host usually nonpathogenic (usually no clinical signs), possibly mild enteritis w/ heavy worm burden
Indirect host:depends on where cysts form and their size (lungs and liver commonly affected)
Dogs: history of feeding, taeniid type eggs in feces on flotation, recovery of adult worms
Sheep/goats/pig/moose: cysts on necropsy
Routine deworming for tapeworms, decrease interaction w/ wildlife, don’t feed scraps with cysts, limit carnivores on pastures, wash hands and veggies
Yes ZOONOTIC

***Eggs-thick brown shell w/ radial striations and 6 hooklets
Cysts-unilocular hydatid or multilocular hydatid

38
Q

Giardia Sp.

A

Giardia
Direct (entire life cycle occurs on the surface of enterocytes)
Definitive hosts: All mammals
Fecal-oral
Cysts
~3-10 days
Immunocompetent animals usually asymptomatic, small bowel diarrhea, steatorrhea (accumulation of fat in stool from malabsorption of fat), abdominal pain, sudden weight loss (secondary to malabsorption)

Fecal float w/ ZnSO4-cyst, Direct fecal smear-trophozoites, Giardia Antigen ELISA

Bath w/ shampoo to remove fecal debris and associated cysts, remove feces daily, environmental areas should be sanitized by stream-cleaning or commercially available disinfectants

Yes, but rare transmission from dog to human

39
Q

Cystoisospora Spp.

A
coccidia
direct
Paratenic: rodents
Definitive: cats and dogs
Fecal oral (ingest sporulated oocyst)
Sporulated oocyst
9 days
Mustard yellow diarrhea (Looks like LI, but is actually distal SI). Asymptomatic in older animals. 
Fecal flotation to determine oocysts. 

Highly resistant. Appropriate sanitation in coccidiosis a in kennels and catteries Disinfectants with high conc. Of ammonia. Steam and pressure. Paint or seal kennel floors to prevent adherence of feces to these surfaces.
Not zoonotic

***MUSTARD YELLOW diarrhea.

40
Q

Eimeria Bovis (bovine coccidiosis)

A

Coccidia
direct
Definitive host: bovine. Extremely host specific.
Fecal oral (ingestion of sporulated oocyst)
Sporulated oocyst
15-20 days
Watery, yellow diarrhea. Some blood and mucus. Dehydration. Weight loss, rough hair coat. See signs of both LI and SI diarrhea. In younger animals, see profuse, projectile diarrhea.
Fecal flotation or quantitative fecal examination.

Husbandry problem. Difficult to clean pastures. Avoid overstocking. Rely on coccidiostats. Herd problem → must treat everyone. Reduce stresses!!!
not zoonotic

***NO LIDS IN BOVINE COCCIDIA (this is how to distinguish if coccidia in a dog or at is Eimeria). High morbidityy, low mortality.

41
Q

Cryptosporidium

A

cryptosporidium
direct
Fecal oral
Sporulated oocyst
2-7 days
In calves younger than 3 weeks: yellow scours, dehydration, weight loss, anorexia, depression.
IFA specific for oocysts, fecal smear, fecal float

yes ZOONOTIC

***LESS THAN 3 months of age.

42
Q

hypobiotic

A

ability to rest in a stage of larvae or nematode in the gut due to a change in the host or in their environment that is currently not suitable

43
Q

Feline Panleukopenia (Feline distemper)

A

young kittens 2-4 months
Host: all felidae and minks, raccoon
signs: fever, depression, dehydration V/D
reproductive failure and teratological changes
***find panleukopenia
ELISA or leukocyte counting or serology
incubation 2-7 days
Fomites and indirect contact (feces, urine, vomit)

44
Q

coronavirus

A

single stranded positive sense RNA
Enveloped
hosts: mammals and avian
epithelial cells of respiratory and intestinal tracts
cause: respiratory and enteric disease
severe in young
not very stable (photosensitive and detergenet, prefer the cold)

45
Q

parvovirus summary

A
non enveloped
spherical
20nm
icosahedral
ssDNA
Lytic replication
disease: enteric, reproductive, hemapoitic
46
Q

Coronavirus summary

A
enveloped
smooth and round
80-220nm
helical core icosahedral capsid
ssRNA positive sense, mRNA like
exocytosis
dieases: enteric and respiratory
47
Q

canine coronavirus

A

associated with canine parvovirus (fatal diarrhea)
normally more mild by itself
diagnostic: EM or Virus isolation in cell culture

48
Q

Feline enteric viral disease

A

combo of Feline enteric coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)

49
Q

Feline enteric coronavirus (FeCoV)

A

Serotype 1 and 2 with 1 being more common and not cross reactive with K9
makes lots of mistakes during replication (quasispecies)
mild enteric or respiratory diseases
persistent infections
groupings of cats are much more susceptible
fecal oral or inhalation: fomite contact

50
Q

quasispecies

A

a group of viruses that are related by similar mutations competing within a highly mutagenic environment

51
Q

Feline infectious peritonitis

A

mutation from FeCoV
infect white blood cells that get transferred throughout the body
inflammation occurs around infected tissues(abdomen, kidney, brain)

***immune mediated viral disease

serology

52
Q

Reovirus

A

respiratory, enteric, orphan
non-enveloped spherical 55-80nm
cytoplasmic replication
enzymes for dsRNA synthesis 3 layer capsid

53
Q

rotavirus

A

Structure: 7 distinct serogroups
infectious: VP4 cleaved by intestinal protease to VP5 and VP8 (bind receptors
replicate: granular intracytoplasmic inclusion body
Incubation: 16-24 hours
at the apices of epithelial cells in SI shorten villi
enterocyte replacement rate is low in youth and better in older animals
***Signs: White Scours!!! death due to dehydration or secondary bacterial infection

EM and immune EM of fecal material
FAT
ELISA
RT-PCR primary means

54
Q

susceptibility of neonates

A

incubation 16-24 hours
rotaviruses 4 to 14 days
coronavirus 4 to 30 days
mucosal antibody more important than systemic antibody

55
Q

rotavirus transmission

A
fecal oral
inactivated by phenolic disinfectants 
stable in the environment 
high titer in feces of young and subclinical in older animals,
persistent and periodic shedding
56
Q

summary of Rotavirus

A

neonatal diarrhea, short incubation period, feces carries lots of virus, mucosal antibody

*maternal and local immunity is important

57
Q

Coronaviruses to know

A

PEDV and transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE)
bovine coronavirus
FeCoV/FIP

58
Q

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea

A

Viral gastroenteritis hard to distinguish from TGE
V/D
severe morbidity and mortality in first 21 days of life (pre weaning)
less severe in older pigs
in SI apices of villi
malabsorptive diarrhea
incubation 24-48hours (up to 7 days)
fecal oral shed in first 24 hours for 10 to 30 days
feces or oral fluids RT-PCR
Herd closure, biosecurity, lactogenic immunity, vaccines

59
Q

Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV)

A
highly contageous
V/D
all ages susceptible 
normally seen at farrowing
incubation 18h. to 3 days
extremely fatal in piglets
fecal oral (not environmentally stable)
shed in feces for 2-8 weeks
transmammary or fecal
carrier animals are primary source
mature villus enterocytes blunting and shortening villi (Thinning intestinal wall)
60
Q

TGEV signs and diagnostics and treatment

A

piglets: vomiting and watery diarrhea (undigested milk) under 7 days die
over 21 live
Adults: inappetance and Diarrhea

immunofluorescence (IFA)
RT-PCR
prevent with: colostrum IgA, hygiene, vaccines for sow before farrowing

61
Q

Rota, corona fun fact

A

Both enteric coronavirus and rotavirus have no systemic component (no viremia)

62
Q

age

A

differential diagnoses

63
Q

behavior

A

helminths infections

64
Q

baylisascaris

A

raccoon roundworms