Exam 2 Body Defenses and Endocrine Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2 Body Defenses and Endocrine Pharmacology Deck (112)
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1

chemical mediator of inflammation
protein present in an inactive form in plasma and mast cells; increases vascular permeability and causes pain. effects are similar to histamine, broken down by ACE.

Bradykinin

2

chemical mediator of inflammation
series of at least 20 proteins that combine in a cascade fashion to neutralize or destroy an antigen; stimulates histamine release by mast cells, causes cell lysis

complement

3

chemical mediator of inflammation
stored and released by mast cells; causes vasodilation; smooth muscle constriction; tissue swelling; and itching

histamine

4

chemical mediator of inflammation
lipids stored and released by mast cells; effects are similar to those of histamine; synthesized from arachidonic acid; responsible for some symptoms of asthma and allergies

leukotrienes

5

chemical mediator of inflammation
lipid present in most tissues and stored and released by mast cells; increase capillary permeability, attract WBCs to the site of inflammation, cause pain, and induce fever; aspirin inhibits their synthesis; some are available as medications

prostaglandins

6

tinnitus, deafness, urticaria, nausea, vomiting, confusion, drowsiness, prolonged bleeding time, dyspepsia, stomach pain

Common adverse effects of Salicylates

7

bronchospasm, anaphylactic shock, laryngeal edema, hemolytic anemia, salicylism, angioedema, Reye's Syndrome, metabolic acidosis, severe GI bleeding, hepatotoxicity

Severe Adverse Reactions of Salicylates

8

back pain, peripheral edema, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, flatulence, dizziness, headache, insomnia, HTN

Increased risk of cardiovascular events, acute renal failure

adverse effects of celecoxib (Celebrex)

9

COX2 Inhibitor, NSAID, anti-inflammatory

celecoxib (Celebrex)

10

epigastric pain, abdominal pain

Hepatotoxicity, acute renal failure, GI Bleeding

adverse effects of acetaminophen

11

dyspepsia, dizziness, headache, drowsiness, tinnitus, rash, pruritus, increased liver enzymes, prolonged bleeding time, edema, nausea, vomiting, occult blood loss

Peptic ulcer, GI Bleeding, anaphylactic reactions with bronchospasm, blood dyscrasias, renal impairment, MI, HF, hepatotoxicity

adverse effects of ibuprofen

12

benefit of selectively blocking COX2 and not COX1

The selective inhibition of COX2 produces the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic effects typical of oter NSAIDS, but without causing platelet aggregation or GI Bleeding.

13

What should NSAIDs be taken with to decrease GI upset?

food or milk

14

Which drug should not be given to children under 19 years old or within two-three weeks of the varicella Vaccine?

aspirin or salicylates

15

Which patients should refrain from drinking alcohol?

Those taking acetaminphen

16

Adverse effects of Immunostimulant:
flulike symptoms, rash, anemia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, confusion, dyspnea

Cardiac arrest, hypotension, tachycardia, thrombocytopenia, oliguria, anuria, PE, capillary leak syndrome

aldesleukin (Proleukin)

17

Adverse effects of Immunostimulant:
flulike symptoms, dysuria, hematuria, anemia, lymphadenopathy

Thrombocytopenia, cystitis, UTI, disseminated mycobacteria

bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine (TheraCys, Tice)

18

Adverse effects of Immunostimulant:
flulike symptoms, myalgia, fatigue, headache, anorexia, diarrhea

Myelosuppression, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, suicide ideation, anaphylaxis, hepatotoxicity

interferons

19

Identical to endogenous IL-2
initiates a series of actions thatactivate IFNs, TNF, and other ILs.
Promotes proliferation of both B and T cells, macrophages, NK cells which in turn increase the body's ability to fight cancer cells

aldesleukin (Proleukin)

20

Dexamethasone is the overdose treatment

aldesleukin (Proleukin)

21

treats patients with superficial bladder cancer

TheraCys

22

used to stimulate immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Tice

23

Adverse Effects of which immunosuppressant:
Hirsutism, tremor, nausea, vomiting

HTN, MI, **nephrotoxicity, hyperkalemia, seizures, paresthesia, hepatoxicity

Avoid sun exposure

cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune)

24

calcineurin inhibitor, thus diminishing T and B cell activity and suppressing the immune response

cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune)

25

preferred drug for transplant rejection

cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune)
calcineurin inhibitor

26

adverse effects of which immunosuppressant?
nausea, vomiting, anorexia

severe nausea and vomiting, bone marrow suppression, thrombocytopenia, serious infections, malignancy, anaphylaxis *Hematologic disease *Hepatic impairment

azathioprine (Azasan, Imuran)

27

prophylaxis for kidney rejection

azathioprine (Azasan, Imuran)
Cytotoxic Agent and antimetabolite

28

local reactions at the injection site (pain, erythema, myalgia), flu like symptoms (malaise, fever, chills) headache, dizziness

Anaphylaxis, HTN, infections, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, renal impairment (basiliximab), PE (muromonab-CD3 and antithymocyte globulin), herpes simplex or cytomegalovirus infections (muromonab-CD3)

adverse effects of antibodies (immunosuppressants)

29

suppress proliferating B and T cells

cytotoxic agents and antimetabolites (azathioprine)

30

cortocosteriods used for transplant rejection

prednisone and methylprednisolone