EXAM 2 -- Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EXAM 2 -- Chapter 3 Deck (21)
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1

2 Major Divisions of the Nervous System

Central Nervous System (CNS)
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

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Central Nervous System (CNS)

- it receives, processes, and sends signals to the PNS
- the division of the nervous system that is located within the skull and spine
- 2 major divisions: the brain and spinal cord

3

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

- it carries information to and from the CNS
- the division that is located outside the skull and spine
- 2 major divisions: the somatic nervous system (SNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS)

4

Somatic Nervous System (SNS)

- the part of the PNS that interacts with the external environment
- composed of afferent nerves and efferent nerves

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Afferent Nerves (SNS)

- carry sensory signals from the skin, skeletal muscles, joints, eyes, ears, and so on, to the CNS

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Efferent Nerves (SNS)

- carry motor signals from the CNS to the skeletal muscles

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Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

- the part of the PNS that regulates the body's internal environment
- composed of afferent nerves and efferent nerves
- the efferent nerves are divided into two kinds: sympathetic nerves and parasympathetic nerves

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Afferent Nerves (ANS)

- carry sensory signals from internal organs to the CNS

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Efferent Nerves (ANS)

- carry motor signals from the CNS to internal organs
- divided into two kinds: sympathetic nerves and parasympathetic nerves

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Sympathetic Nerves

- those autonomic motor nerves that project from the CNS in the lumbar (small of the back) and thoracic (chest area) regions of the spinal cord
- stimulate, organize, and mobilize energy resources in threatening situations
- changes are indicative of psychological arousal

11

Parasympathetic Nerves

- those autonomic motor nerves that project from the brain and sacral (lower back) region of the spinal cord
- act to conserve energy
- changes are indicative of psychological relaxation

12

How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?

12

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What are cranial nerves?

- nerves that project from the brain
- purely sensory and motor fibers

14

What are the 3 categories of protection for the CNS?

(1) skull and backbone
(2) 3 meninges (dura matter, arachnoid membrane, pia mater)
(3) cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)

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Dura matter

- the outer meninx
- tough mother

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Arachnoid membrane

- immediately inside the dura matter
- spider-like weblike membrane

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Subarachnoid space

- beneath the arachnoid membrane
- contains many large blood vessels and cerebrospinal fluid

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Pia mater

- the innermost meninx
- delicate
- pious mother
- adheres to the surface of the CNS

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Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)

- fills the subarachnoid space, the central canal of the spinal cord, and the cerebral ventricles of the brain

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Cerebral ventricles

- the four large internal chambers of the brain

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Central channel

- a small central channel that runs the length of the spinal cord