Exam 3 -- Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3 -- Chapter 4 Deck (28)
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1

Neurons

Cells of the nervous system that are specialized for the reception, conduction, and transmission of electrochemical signals.

2

Parts of a neuron

- Cell Body (soma)
- Dendrites
- Axon (Axon hillock, Myelin, Buttons, Synapse, Synaptic vesicles)
- Neuron Cell Membrane

3

Cell Body (soma)

- Nucleus (contains chromosomes (DNA)
- Cytoplasm
- Functions: Metabolism and Synthesis of proteins from genes

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Cytoplasm

Clear fluid outside the nucleus

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Metabolism

Energy production

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Dendrites

- Processes emanating from the cell body, which communicate with other neurons
- Receives most synaptic contact from other neurons

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Axon

- Process projecting from the cell body
- Carries the neural signal
- Made of: Axon hillock, myelin, buttons, synapse, and synaptic vesicles

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Axon hillock

- Cone-shaped region at the junction between the axon and cell body
- (nearby) involved in decision to increase or decrease signaling

9

Myelin

- fatty insulation around many axons
- Nodes of Ranvier
- Speed up neural signals
- Multiple Sclerosis (MS): degeneration of myelin

10

Nodes of Ranvier

Gaps between sections of myelin

11

Buttons

- Knobby ending of axon branches
- Releases neurotransmitter into synaptic clefts (gaps)

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Neurotransmitter

Molecules released from neurons that influence other cells

13

Synapse

- Junction between two neurons or a neuron and a muscle or a glad
- Chemical signals are released across the synaptic cleft (gap)

14

Synaptic vesicles

Membrane covered balls containing neurotransmitters

15

Neuron Cell Membrane

- Composed of lipid bilayer (inside and outside of neurons differ in chemical concentration)
- Do need to get some chemicals across this barrier
- Done by Channel Proteins and Signal Proteins

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Lipid Molecule

- Polar head region: attracts water
- Neutral Tail: repels water
- This difference helps keep the lipids lined up (heads toward water, tails away from water)

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Channel Proteins

Allow certain molecules to pass through the membrane

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Signal Proteins

Transfer a signal to the inside of the cell when particular molecules bind to them on the outside

19

Classes of Neurons (By Structure)

- Multipolar
- Multipolar Interneuron
- Unipolar
- Bipolar

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Multipolar

- Neuron with more than two processes emanating from the cell body
- Most human neurons are multipolar***

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Multipolar interneuron

- Neurons with short axons or no axons
- Integrate neural activity within a signal structure
- Do not carry signals from one structure to another

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Unipolar

Neuron with one process emanating from the cell body

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Bipolar

Neurons with two processes emanating from the cell body

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Classes of Neurons (By Function)

- Sensory Neurons
- Motor Neurons
- Interneurons

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Sensory Neurons

Carry information from sense receptors to the CNS

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Motor Neurons

Carry information from the CNS to the muscles and glands

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Interneurons

- Communicate with other neurons
- Make up most of the human brain***

28

Support Cells in the Nervous System

- Out number neurons (10 to 1)***