Basic Components of Any Organization People Differentiated Activities Cooperation toward GOAL Authority
Neo Classical Theory
A more humanistic approach Questions the rigidity of classical theory Critiqued the four classical principles
Seven Basic Parts of Organization
Operating Core Strategic Apex Middle line Technostructure Support Staff Ideology Politics
Theories of Org. Change
Structural Theory: Definition: Sum total of the ways in which labor or work is divided into distinct tasks and the ways these tasks are coordinated to achieve efficiency and control.
Expectations of the role set for a job holder “Role episodes”: how we learn roles Role differentiation: Extent to which different roles are performed by employees in the same subgroup. Role conflict Role overload
Shared expectations of a group May agree with, be different than, or be unrelated to organizational goals Enforced by positive reinforcement or by punishment Hawthorne studies: “binging” Exclusion from group activities Deviation over time = isolation
Shared Values, Beliefs, and Traditions that exist among individuals in the organization
The Change Curve
Stages of Change
Unawareness Awareness Understanding Adoption Sustaining
Components of Effective Change
Good timing and ideas, generally accepted
The Success Equation
D x V x F > R (maybe she wrote it on the board but apparently I did not write it down)
If D (Dissatisfcation with how things are now) times V (Vision of what is possible) times F (First, concrete steps that can be taken for vision) is greater than R (Resistance) then change is possible.
"The people side of Change"
- Structured and Intentional
- Research-based processes, tools, and techniques
- Focused on readiness, willingness, and capability
increases usage and adoption of how work will be done tomorrow by suporting employee's transition.
The Change Process
Why do people resist change
Vested interest of organizational members Fear of uncertainty Misunderstandings Social Disruption inconvenience Organizational Incompatibility Lack of top-level support and commitment Rejection of outsiders
Value of repeatable Model for change
Used by project teams to manage the people-side of system, process, and organizational changes
The process by which an organization reduces its number of employees to achieve greater overall efficiency
Process of eliminating jobs within the organization by having those work functions contracted to other organizations
The process of elimination jobs within the organization by having those work functions performed in cheaper labor markets overseas (offshores)
Mergers and Acquisition
Organizational Merger: joining or combining of two organizations of approximately equal status and power Acquisition: The process by which one organization acquires or subsumes the resources of a second organization
Physical locations and employees are distributed throughout the world in addition to being an organization.
Leveraging I/O knowledge
Stakeholder identification and engagement Influence and commitment Training and development Needs assessment, learning theory Organization and job design Job analysis, span of control, org structure Behavior change Antecedents and consequences Identify and overcome resistance Personality, communication Group and Team behavior Virtual teams, conflict, decision making
Holistic Approach to Org. Change
Trends in Change Management
Positive Trends Greater awareness of the need for and value of change management Increased use of methodologies, tools, and language More engagement and earlier integration with project management More resources and positions devoted to change management Greater demand for change management training and certification Increased leadership support for change management Negative trend Underestimation and allocation of change management resources
A standard of organizational performance that recognizes the need for organizations to contribute to economic, social, and environmental welfare.
Advantages of Locations for change management
Greatest contributors for successful change management
Active, visible executive sponsorship Frequent, open communication about the change Structured change management approach Dedicated change management resources and funding Employee engagement and participation Engagement with and support from middle management