Exam #2 PowerPoint Questions Flashcards Preview

Renal/Fluid and Electrolyte > Exam #2 PowerPoint Questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam #2 PowerPoint Questions Deck (47):
1

acid

one type of compound that contains the hydrogen ion

2

anascara

severe generalized edema

3

anion

a negatively charged ion

4

ascites

an excess amount of peritoneal fluid

5

base

compound that contains the hydroxyl ion

6

buffer

chemical system set up to resist changes, particularly in hydrogen ion levels

7

cation

A positively charged ion

8

dehydration

excessive loss of water

9

diffusion

being widely spread

10

edema

the excess accumulation of fluid in interstitial (tissue) spaces

11

electrolyte

found in the form of inorganic salts, acids, and base. AKA ions

12

feedback

the relaying of information about a given condition to the appropriate organ or system.

13

filtration

the transport of water and dissolved materials through a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure

14

hypertonic

Stronger solutions, compared with those on the opposing side of a membrane

15

hypotonic

Weaker solutions, compared with an opposing solution

16

insensible

not perceptible to the senses. water loss

17

interstitial

fluid is found between cells

18

intravascular

fluid is the watery fluid in blood known as plasma

19

ion

An atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons

20

isotonic

Solutions exerting equal pressures on opposite sides of a membrane

21

osmosis

the diffusion of a pure solvent, such as water, across a semipermeable membrane in response to a concentration gradient

22

permeability

The ability of a membrane to allow molecules to pass through

23

salt

ombination of a base and an acid and is created when the positive ions (usually a mineral) of a base replace the positive hydrogen ions of an acid.

24

solute

is the substance dissolved

25

solvent

a liquid that dissolves substances

26

third-space (fluid)

the excess accumulation of fluid in interstitial (tissue) spaces

27

homeostasis

process in which the body maintains balance

28

negative feedback

body reverses an original stimulus to regain balance

ex blood pressure

29

positive feedback

body enhances original stimulus to make deviation greater

ex woman in labor or blood clotting when we are injured

30

fx of water

transportation of nutrients, electrolytes, and O2

excretion of waste from the cells

acid base balance

regulation of temperature

31

Normal intake methods

Liquid
Food
Metabolism of food

32

Normal output

Skin
Lungs
Kidneys
Feces

33

First sign we need fluid

Thirst by hypothalamus

34

Pituitary gland releases:

ADH in response to low blood volume or increase in plasma sodium

35

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system

controls fluid volume

36

ANP

Released by the heart to correct overload by promoting renal excretion of water

37

6 electrolytes

calcium
sodium
potassium
magnesium
chloride
phosphorus

38

what does sodium do

promotes water retention

39

when is ADH secreted

when there is a decrease in ECF or increase in osmolalty

40

aldosterone comes from and what does it do

adrenal cortex. promotes sodium, chloride, and water reabsorption in the kidneys

41

renin comes from where and does what

secreted by the kidney in response to low BP. Promotes vasoconstriction and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex

42

RAA system

Hypovolemia -->
Renin -->
Angiotensinogen -->
Angiotensin I -->
Angiotensin II -->
-retention of Na+ by kidney
-water retention by kidney
-salt appetite
-increased drinking
-increased blood pressure

43

lymphatics

promotes return of water and protein from interstitial space to vascular space

44

skin

excretes 300-500ml o water daily through perspiration (insensible)

45

lungs

excretes 400-500 ml of water daily through breathings (insensible)

46

kidneys

excretes 1000-1500ml of water daily

47

elevated BUN means

intravascular depletion