Study Guide Exam #1 Flashcards Preview

Renal/Fluid and Electrolyte > Study Guide Exam #1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Study Guide Exam #1 Deck (59):

discuss what a nurse caring for a pt with ESRD should be monitoring

Uremic frost, hypertension, generalized edema (anasarca), bleeding disorders, halitosis


what are expected finding in the ERSD pt

pruritus, confusion, restless leg syndrome, , fatigue, electrolyte imbalance


why is the hemodialysis, ESRD pt at risk for anemia

Decrease of erythropoetin. because the body doesn't produce enough RBC's. Fewer red blood cells means less oxygen is sent to the cells. Without enough oxygen, your tissues and organs have less energy to perform their jobs.


what is the most common cause of glomerulonephritis (hardening of capillaries)

a streptococcal infection (strep throat)


what is the tx for glomerulonephritis

antibiotics, loop diuretics, vasodilators, corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, dialysis


what does a skin and throat culture have to do with glomerulonephritis

detects group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, positive ASO titer


what lab test would you expect to see elevated in the glomerulonephritis

BUN, creatinine, ESR, WBC


what findings what I expect to see in the acute glomerulonephritis patient

decreased urination, foamy urine from protein
smokey, cola or coffee colored urine
periorbitaledema (eyes)


what assessment finding/s would indicate a complication in your post-op TURP patient?

urethral trauma, urinary retention, bleeding, infection


what assessment finding would you expect to see that was normal in your post-op TURP pt

inability to pass urine, some pain, indwelling catheter in place , blood tinged urine, and tenderness


If the pt has the urge to urinate that has foley cath, what action are you taking first

I would make sure it's placement was correct


discuss what you would be teaching on the prevention of UTI's

Wipe front to back (cleanest to dirty)
Void before and after sex
Don't hold in pee
Drink lots of fluids
Shower daily
Wet bathing suits
No synthetic clothing


what are risk factors for UTI's

urosepsis if UTI not treated (shock and death)
being a female
frequent use of feminine hygiene spray
hormal imblanaces
synthetic underwear
hot tubs


what is the diet plan for a pt that has nephrotic syndrome

low protein, low sodium, fat LOW
fruits, veggies, eggs, fish, wheat HIGH


besides hypoalbuminemia, and proteinuria , what else would you expect to see in your nephrotic syndrome patient

irritability, malaise, fatigue, anorexia, nausea


what foods are high in potassium

bananas, avocado, spinach, yogourt, sweet potato, raisins, tomatoes, all veggies


what drug class and drug use is pyridium

analgesic. to treat UTI symptoms


what color does pyridium turn your urine



renal medulla is located where

in the renal pyramids.


name and be able to identify the urinary system

kidneys, ureters, urethra, sphincter,


know what labs assess kidney function

BUN and creatine, GFR,


know the primary function of the kidney

Blood filtration
Acid base balance
Maintain balance of homeostasis in body
Secretes renin and erythropoietin
Forms and stores urine
Eliminates electrolytes


what structure are the kidneys located behind

The peritoneum.


what foods are high in uric acid

Gravy, sardines, beer, organ meats such as liver, kidney, brains, game meats


what is another name for kidney stones

urolithiasis or calculi


why does spironolactone cause gynecomastia

blocks testosterone production.


what is the post op directions your pt must follow after a IVP

push fluids


what is the scope of practice for UAP's

UAP's have NO scope of practice, but can be trained in certain fields such as med passing.


what are s/s of kidney stones?

severe flank pain that can radiate to the groin, diaphoresis, nausea and vomiting, blood in urine.


what patient teaching will you be doing in the urolithiasis pt

The diet: decreased protein, sodium, calcium.

Avoid high phosphate foods.

drink fluids, ambulation, strain urine if stone will not pass


what is a primary medical management goal in the pt who has kidney stones



what are the symptoms of interstitial cystitis

interstitial means the lining that gets inflamed. suprapubic pain. a chronic painful bladder condition. pain during pee, sexual intercourse. Urge to pee often.


what foods and drinks are you advising your pt with interstitial cystitis to avoid

alcohol, Avoid aged, canned, cured, processed, and smoked meats and fish. Avoid spicy foods. Avoid acidic foods and drinks. Avoid anything with artificial sweeteners such as aspartame.


what drug class and use is Ditropan

urinary antispasmodics. reduces muscle spasms of the bladder and urinary tract.


what specific symptom can be contributed to a UTI in the elderly patient that should not be taken lightly?

confusion. risk for bacteremia, sepsis, and shock.


what risk factors make the ERSD pt an unlikely candidate for a kidney transplant

chronic infections. a drinker, a smoker. Anyone with a bad diet.


what lab tests are elevated in the renal pt with disease

BUN and creatinine.


what s/s would you expect to see in the CRF pt

Lethargy, seizures, coma, tremors, ataxia.

hypertension, peripheral edema.

uremic halitosis, tachypnea

anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

polyuria, oliguria, anuria, proteinuria, poor turger.


what foods/drinks contain phosphorus that your CRF should avoid

animal products, dairy, gravy, white and whole grain bread, nuts.


what technique should you use to assess the patency of an AV graft use for hemodialysis

palpate - "thrill". auscultate - "bruit". check distal pulses, and circulation.


what is the s/s of dialysis disequilibrium

nausea, vomiting, change in level of consciousness, seizures, and agitation.


what is a serious complication of having peritoneal dialysis

peritonitis, infection at the access site, protein loss, hyperglycemia and lipidemia, poor inflow and outflow, cloudy urine.


what assessment finding would you indicate if your pt has peritonitis

infection. obtain CandS and gram stain if suspected


what is your post op interventions/assessments in the renal biopsy pt

monitor dressing site, VS, urine output, H and H levels for 24 hours. Flank pain. Watch signs for internal bleeding. Bed rest in supine position with a back roll. Monitor for hematuria, and medicate for pain.


why is potassium decreased after having hemodialysis

Instead of having two kidneys continuously filtering out excess water, potassium, sodium and poisonous waste products, you have an artificial kidney, which filters these substances only for several hours and only three times per week. DIALYSIS


what is the nephrons job in the kidney

It is the filtering unit of the kidneys. Functioning unit.


what is the glomeruluses job within the kidney

the components that carry out the primary filtering action of the kidney. filters the blood


what are the normal components in urine

nitrogenious waste. nitrogen, urea, concentration urea 9.3 g/L, chloride 1.87 g/L, sodium 1.17 g/L, potassium 0.750 g/L, creatinine 0.670 g/L and other dissolved ions, inorganic and organic compounds (proteins, hormones, metabolites).


what is the purpose of the kidneys producing renin

which sense changes in renal perfusion pressure, via stretch receptors in the vascular walls

Renin increases BP


what is the most common cause of pyelonephritis

E. Coli


what is the s/s of pyelonephritis

urinary tract infection, cloudy urine, foul smelling urine, frequent urge to urinate, frequent urination, or blood in urine, chills, fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, or malaise, nausea, vomiting, fast HR


how would you describe what pyelonephritis was in simple terms to your patient

It is a type of UTI that affects both kidneys.


discuss how the urine leaves the body after production formation from kidneys

Before leaving your body, urine travels through the urinary tract. ... kidneys: two bean-shaped organs that filter waste from the blood and produce urine. ureters: two thin tubes that take pee from the kidney to the bladder. bladder: a sac that holds pee until it's time to go to the bathroom.


describe why you would find glucose in a patients urine

For someone who is a diabetic


what is the goal for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis

dialysis can sustain life for clients who have bot acute and chronic kidney disease


what is your post op priority care in the renal anagiography pt

monitor for bleeding from catheter insertion site, monitor for hematoma, VS, bedrest 4-6 hours with legs extended, push fluids post procedure and assess pedal pulses


why would a CRF patient need amphrogel and antacid

Binds to phosphate.


what is the drug class and use of Proscar and what types of pt take the med?

an alpha inhibiter and it is used treat BPH


what is septra

antibiotics used for UTI. bacterial infections