Exam 2 Quantitative Measurement Flashcards Preview

NUR3300 > Exam 2 Quantitative Measurement > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 Quantitative Measurement Deck (67):
1

Where is data collection found?

Methods section of the article.

2

Rule of thumb

"Garbage in, garbage out" If you make poor measurements, you're going to get bad results

3

Pretest tools. Why?

Performs as expected
Ease of administration
Time commitment
Subject understanding

4

Data/datum

Data is plural, datum singular

5

Instrument/tools

Different word, same thing

6

Remote indicator

how to measure something.
Example: A way to measure pain...facial expression, body language

7

Standardized instrument

An instrument (or tool) that has been checked for reliability/validity, always will work the same

8

Subscale

Take a general topic, break it down

9

Explicit

As accurate as possible

10

Widely applicable

Applies to the general population

11

Orderly

Tidy flow...visually aesthetic

12

Specific

Specific to topic...
Example: DEPRESSION, not anxiety or sadness

13

Realistic

Time appropriate, cost appropriate

14

Structure

High(forces subject to pick a specific answer), middle, low(open ended questions)

15

Quantifiability

Ability of data to be recorded by numbers

16

Obtrusiveness

To what extend does the subject know they are being observed/assessed

17

Objectivity

To what extend are the results subject to bias

18

Descriptive/Exploratory Design

Observational checklist - unique to this design
Questionnaire - very popular
Scale

19

Correlational/Quasi-Experimental/Experimental/Clinical Trial

Questionnaire
Survey
Biophysical

20

Biophysical Measurement...why use?

Relevance to nursing (BP, HR, Temp, Lab values...etc)
Impact of nursing actions
Evaluate nursing procedures
Find health related correlations

21

Biophysical Measurements need to be...

Appropriately collected, recorded, stored, tested, and reported

22

Psychosocial Measurements
Self Reports

Interviews, written questionnaires, etc

23

Psychosocial Measurements
Observations

Checklists, observational rating scales

24

Likert-type

5-7 points
Ex: strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, strongly disagree

25

Visual Analog Scale (VAS)

0-100mm
100mm line, subject places vertical line on scale based on their answer.

26

Semantic differential

Forced choices, range
Ex: range of sad to happy, five blank lines, place check mark saying how happy you feel.

27

Q-sort

agree/disagree
Sort index cards into piles...agree/disagree, then agree/strongly agree; strongly disagree/disagree

28

Projective techniques

Appropriate for right brained people/children
Ex: Ink blots, pictures, music. Opinions are projected on the image

29

Criteria when examining tools

Appropriate (to question/design/population)
Feasible
Acceptable to subject
Reliable and valid

30

Measurement Errors

Need to reflect as much truth as possible in our measurements

31

Observed value

True value + Error

32

Error can be:

Random
Systematic (Biased)

33

How can you reduce error?

Use reliable and valid tools.

34

Reliability

Examines stability, equivalence and internal consistency of the tool

35

Correlations
-Pearson r
Chronbach's alpha

.90 and above is very reliable
.80-.89 very good
.60-.79 typical

36

Stability:
-Test/retest

same instrument given more than one time using same conditions
find if there is a correlation (r) between scores
want a strong correlation

37

Stability:
-parallel/alternate form

two versions of the same instrument
Example: use the same questions, but move them around...put them in a different order

38

Internal consistancy

The questionnaire deals with the same conceptual area consistently throughout the tool
ex: all the questions are about "happiness"

39

Split-half

see if 1st half and 2nd half of test are highly correlated

40

item to total

strong correlation in total score

41

kuder-richardson coefficient

dichotomous scores

42

chronbach's alpha

continuous scores

43

Equivalence
-Inter-rater

Do two or more people score the observations the same
Gives the researcher a correlation coefficient

44

If doing the test-retest...

the longer the lag time, the lower the r

45

The more homogeneous the sample...

they lower the reliability.

46

Validity

The tool actually measures the variable of interest.

47

Can a tool be valid without being reliable?

NO. If a tool is valid, it must be reliable. However, a tool can be reliable without being valid.

48

Face

The items (questions) look appropriate to the general population. It "looks right."

49

Content

Items derived from literature and expert advice.
Items look appropriate to experts in the field
Items with questionable ratings are modified or dropped.

50

Construct

Do the items measure all important aspects of the concept and are those important aspects measured appropriately.
-Known groups
-Hypothesis testing
-Convergence/divergence
-Factor analysis
-Multimethod/multitrait

51

Criterion

Compares to another measure...logically connected
-Tries to determine how observed score might compare to the true scores

52

Predictive

This measurement correlates well with predictions made using this measurement.
Ex. if you have a strong high school GPA, you'll have a strong college GPA

53

Concurrent

This measurement correlates well with another 'gold standard' measurement given at the same time.

54

Sensitivity

The ability of an instrument to correctly identify a "case" or correctly screen for or diagnose a condition.
Ex. This IS depression

55

Specificity

The ability of an instrument to correctly identify 'non-cases' or to rule out those without the condition.
Ex...this shows it is NOT depression

56

Response rate

Very low... 5%, 10% with a reminder

57

Subject characteristics

may limit responses...age, physical limitations

58

Complexity

Needs to be low in complexity in order to be comprehended

59

Scale

specifies all the possible values a given measurement may have

60

All scales have:

-At least two values
-Exhaustive scope
-Mutually exclusive categories

61

Categorical/dichotomous

1 for boy, 2 for girl

62

Continuous

1,2,3,4 etc...

63

Nominal

Using an arbitrary number represent your variable
ex. 1 for boy, 2 for girl
*Categorical

64

Ordinal

Using a systematic ordering of numbers to represent ordered responses.
Not measured...no 'distance' between numbers.
Ex. Strongly agree=5....strongly disagree=1
*Categorical
*Likert-scale

65

Interval

Using a systematic ordering of numbers to represent ordered responses
there IS a true distance between the numbers
NO true zero point
*Continuous
ex. temperature (above and below zero)

66

Ratio

Most sophisticated
There is a true distance between the numbers
IS a true zero point
*Continuous
Ex height/weight/age

67

Scoring the tool

Check the instructions
Total scores vs. subscale scores
Positives and negatives...today was a good day yes or no, vs, today was a bad day yes or no