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Flashcards in EXAM 2 REVIEW Deck (193):
1

Which of the following statements demonstrates the cephalocaudal trend?

At birth, the head takes up one-fourth of total body length, the legs only one-third.

2

The best estimate of a child's physical maturity is

skeletal age.

3

Skeletal age is determined by __________ to see the extent to which soft, pliable cartilage has hardened into bone.

X-raying the long bones of the body

4

At age 2, which of the following children is most likely to be ahead of the others in skeletal age?

Ruby, an African-American girl

5

A surprising aspect of brain growth is that

as synapses form, 20 to 80% of the surrounding neurons die.

6

__________ are responsible for coating neural fibers with an insulating fatty sheath.

Glial cells

7

__________ improves the efficiency of message transfer.

Myelination

8

Between birth and 2 years,

the organization of sleep and wakefulness changes substantially.

9

As long as negative environmental influences such as poor nutrition or illness are not severe,

children and adolescents typically show catch-up growth once conditions improve.

10

Which of the following statements about breastfeeding is true?

Breastfed infants accept new solid foods more easily than do bottle-fed infants.

11

The World Health Organization recommends breastfeeding until age __________, with solid foods added at __________.

The World Health Organization recommends breastfeeding until age 2 years, with solid foods added at 6 months.

12

Which of the following statements regarding breastfeeding is true?

Breastfeeding helps increase spacing among siblings.

13

Which of the following responses is very difficult to classically condition in young babies?

fear

14

Once habituation occurs, a new stimulus causes responsiveness to return to a high level, an increase called

recovery

15

Which of the following is an example of a gross-motor skill?

climbing

16

Baby Isaac combined his skills of kicking, rocking on all fours, and reaching in order to crawl.
This is an example of

dynamic systems of action.

17

Dynamic systems theory shows us why motor development

cannot be genetically determined.

18

By the end of the first year, a baby's ability to manipulate objects greatly expands with the development of

the pincer grasp.

19

Perception studies demonstrate that

Western babies lose their ability to detect deviations in foreign musical rhythms by 12 months of age.

20

Which of the following statements about intermodal stimulation is true?

It fosters all aspects of psychological development.

21

In Piaget's sensorimotor stage, infants and toddlers

"think" with their eyes, ears, hands, and other sensorimotor equipment.

22

At 6 months, Annabelle dropped her rattle in a fairly rigid way.
By 12 months, she tossed objects down the basement stairs, bounced them off walls, and threw them in the air.

Annabelle's modifications of her dropping scheme are an example of

accommodation

23

In Piaget's theory, a circular reaction is a means of building schemes in which infants

try to repeat chance motor activities again and again.

24

According to Piaget's theory, when Baby D'Arcy sucks her thumb, she is demonstrating

a primary circular reaction.

25

Piaget concluded that babies make the A-not-B search error because...

they do not have a clear image of the object as persisting when hidden from view.

26

Some critics argue that the violation-of-expectation method is flawed because

it reveals only babies' perceptual preference for novelty, not their knowledge of the physical world.

27

Follow-up research on infant cognitive development suggests that mastery of object permanence

is a gradual achievement.

28

In the information-processing system, the central executive

is the conscious, reflective part of the mental system.

29

In the information-processing system, information first enters

the sensory register.

30

Recall

improves steadily with age.

31

The greatest drawback of the information-processing perspective is its difficulty with

putting the components of cognition into a broad, comprehensive theory.

32

Vygotsky's sociocultural theory emphasizes that children

live in rich social and cultural contexts that affect the way their cognitive world is structured.

33

Which of the following tasks would be within Lucy's zone of proximal development?

a task that Lucy cannot yet handle on her own but can do with the help of an adult

34

Three-year-old Liam is putting together a puzzle.
Liam's father begins by pointing to where each piece needs to go and then straightening out each piece as Liam places them on the puzzle board.
As Liam's competence with the task increases, his father gradually withdraws support.

This is an example of

scaffolding

35

Which of the following statements about the application of Vygotsy's ideas to infancy and toddlerhood is true?

Fine-tuned adult support during infancy and toddlerhood is related to advanced problem solving during the 2nd year.

36

Which of the following statements is supported by research on make-believe play?

Early make-believe is the combined result of children's readiness to engage in it and social experiences that promote it.

37

Habituation and recovery seem to be an especially effective early index of intelligence because they

assess skills that underlie intelligent behavior at all ages.

38

Research consistently shows that young children exposed to long hours of mediocre to poor-quality child care

score lower on measures of cognitive and language skills during the preschool and elementary school years.

39

Quality tends to be the lowest in

for-profit child-care centers.

40

Linguist Noam Chomsky reasoned that...

the rules of sentence organization are too complex to be directly taught to even a cognitively sophisticated young child.

41

Which of the following sounds is the best example of babbling?

nanana

42

Children's language comprehension

develops ahead of production.

43

Studies show that children prefer infant-directed speech (IDS) over other kinds of adult talk

from birth on.

44

Which of the following statements about the role of psychoanalytic theory in modern child development research is true?

One of the lasting contributions of psychoanalytic theory is its ability to capture the essence of personality during each period of development.

45

According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of the first year is

basic trust versus mistrust.

46

Which of the following statements is supported by research on emotional development?

Infants, children, and adults use diverse responses to express a particular emotion.

47

The social smile

is evoked by parent-child interaction.

48

Newborn babies respond with __________ to too much or too little stimulation.

generalized distress

49

When an unfamiliar adult picks up Louisa, age 9 months, she begins to cry and struggles to get down.

Louisa is exhibiting

stranger anxiety.

50

Infants' emotional expressions are

closely tied to their ability to interpret the emotional cues of others.

51

Self-conscious emotions

require adult instruction in when to feel proud, ashamed, or guilty.

52

Effortful control

is regarded as a major dimension of temperament.

53

According to Thomas and Chess, the difficult child

is irregular in daily routines.

54

Which of the following is more likely to be found in shy children than in sociable children?

a higher heart rate from the first few weeks of life

55

The overall stability of temperament is

low in infancy and toddlerhood.

56

Research on the role of heredity in temperament indicates that

identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins across a wide range of temperamental traits and personality measures.

57

__________ involves creating child-rearing environments that recognize each child's temperament while simultaneously encouraging more adaptive functioning.

Goodness of fit

58

Goodness of fit is

at the heart of infant-caregiver attachment.

59

The ethological theory of attachment

recognizes the infant's emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival.

60

In which of Bowlby's phases do children negotiate with the caregiver, using requests and persuasion to alter the caregiver's goals?

preattachment

61

Separation protest declines during which of Bowlby's phases?

formation of a reciprocal relationship

62

In designing the Strange Situation, Mary Ainsworth and her colleagues reasoned that securely attached infants and toddlers

should use the parent as a secure base from which to explore in an unfamiliar setting.

63

__________ adult-infant coordination, in which interactional synchrony occurs, is the best predictor of attachment security.

Moderate

64

Parents who __________ tend to have securely attached infants and to behave sensitively toward them.

discuss their childhoods with objectivity and balance

65

Research on the quality and extent of child care shows that

mother-child interaction is more favorable when children spend fewer hours in child care.

66

Fathers

in the U.S. devote just over 4 hours per workday to children.

67

Which of the following statements about attachment and later development is true?

A child whose parental caregiving improves can bounce back from adversity.

68

Children whose parents __________ typically do well in delaying gratification.

encourage selective and sustained attention

69

The years from 2 to 6 are often called "the __________ years."

play

70

Which of the following statements about body growth in early childhood is true?

The rapid increase in body size of the first two years tapers off into a slower growth pattern.

71

Growth norms

for one population are not good standards for children elsewhere in the world.

72

Handedness

reflects the greater capacity of one side of the brain to carry out skilled motor action.

73

Felicity and Samantha are identical twins.
They are

more likely than ordinary siblings to differ in hand preference.

74

Growth and myelination of fibers linking the cerebellum to the cerebral cortex contributes to __________ in early childhood.

dramatic gains in motor coordination

75

Neurons in the __________ send out fibers to the prefrontal cortex, contributing to improvements in sustained, controlled attention.

reticular formation

76

Which of the following is a function of the corpus callosum?

It supports smooth coordination of movements on both sides of the body.

77

Research on lead exposure during childhood reveals that

a stressed, disorganized home life seems to heighten lead-induced damage.

78

When young children with psychosocial dwarfism are removed from their emotionally inadequate environments,

their growth hormone (GH) levels quickly return to normal and they grow rapidly.

79

Research on sleep demonstrates that

sleep terrors can be triggered by stress or extreme fatigue.

80

Sophia's parents will not allow her to eat any sugary foods.

This practice will most likely

focus Sophia's attention on sugary foods.

81

Which of the following statements about nutrition in the U.S. is true?

By the school years, low-SES U.S. children are, on average, about ½ to 1 inch shorter than their economically advantaged counterparts.

82

Poor diet

depresses the body's immune system, making children more susceptible to disease.

83

In developing countries,

most childhood deaths due to diarrhea can be prevented with oral rehydration therapy (ORT).

84

Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and zinc supplement interventions

save the lives of millions of children each year.

85

In industrialized nations, childhood diseases have declined dramatically during the past half century, largely as a result of

widespread immunization of infants and young children.

86

Which of the following statements about childhood immunizations is true?

Overall, 17% of U.S. preschoolers lack essential immunizations, and the rate rises to 22% for poverty-stricken children.

87

Which of the following statements about otitis media is true?

Plastic tubes that drain the Eustachian tubes often are used to treat chronic otitis media in children.

88

Childhood injuries

occur within a complex ecological system and can often be prevented.

89

Which of the following statements about preventing childhood injury is true?

In the United States, 84% of infant seats and 40% of child booster seats are improperly used.

90

Which of the following children can likely dress and undress without supervision?

Lillian, who is 4 years old

91

Which of the following statements about self-help skills is true?

Between ages 4 and 5, children can dress and undress without supervision.

92

When adults draw with children and point out resemblances between drawings and objects,

preschoolers' pictures become more comprehensible and detailed.

93

A major milestone in drawing occurs when 3- and 4-year-olds learn to

use lines to represent the boundaries of objects.

94

Cross-cultural research indicates that children benefit from __________ in learning to draw.

adult guidance

95

Preschoolers' first attempts to print often involve

their name.

96

Which of the following statements about individual differences in motor skills during early childhood is true?

Girls have an edge over boys in fine-motor skills.

97

Which of the following statements is supported by research on sex differences in motor skills?

Sex differences in motor skills increase with age, but they remain small throughout childhood.

98

For preschoolers to easily acquire new motor skills,

playgrounds must offer a range of equipment to meet the diverse needs of individual children.

99

Piaget believed that sensorimotor activity leads to

internal images of experience, which children then label with words.

100

Make-believe __________ as children realize that agents and recipients of pretend actions can be independent of themselves.

becomes less self-centered

101

Children who create imaginary companions tend to

be more sociable with peers.

102

Which of the following is the best method of helping children appreciate dual representation?

exposing children to diverse symbols, such as picture books and maps

103

According to Piaget, young children's thinking is rigid and strongly influenced by the way things appear at the moment because they are not capable of

operations.

104

Piaget's class inclusion problem demonstrates children's limitations in

hierarchical classification.

105

Which of the following statements about follow-up research to preoperational thought is true?

Children as young as 2 years realize that what they see sometimes differs from what another person sees.

106

Preschoolers' ability to reason about transformations is evident on

tasks that require reasoning by analogy.

107

Which of the following statements about children's questions is true?

With age, preschoolers increasingly ask about function, activity, state, and theory of mind.

108

The usefulness of children's questions depends on the

informative value of adults' answers.

109

Vygotsky's theory stresses the __________ of cognitive development.

social context

110

Children who freely use private speech during a challenging activity __________ than their less talkative age-mates.

show better task performance

111

Barbara Rogoff suggests the term __________ to encompass children's diverse opportunities to learn through involvement with others, applying it as a broader concept than __________.

guided participation; scaffolding

112

One challenge to Vygotsky's theory is that

in some cultures, verbal dialogues are not the only means through which children learn.

113

Which of the following is a common criticism of Vygotsky's theory?

It says too little about how basic cognitive skills contribute to socially transmitted higher cognitive processes.

114

Gains in __________ permit preschoolers to generate increasingly complex play and problem-solving goals.

working memory

115

Scripts

help children organize, interpret, and predict everyday experiences.

116

Lydia acts out her __________ of putting her baby brother to bed when she plays with her doll.

script

117

After a trip to the supermarket, Raj asks his daughter, "Do you remember the supermarket? What did we do at the supermarket?

What food did we buy at the supermarket?"
Raj is using a(n) __________ style to elicit his daughter's autobiographical memory.

repetitive

118

Overlapping-waves theory emphasizes that

trying many strategies is vital for developing new, more effective solution techniques.

119

Mastery of false belief is associated with early __________ ability.

reading

120

Which of the following statements about children's emergent literacy is true?

Many preschoolers think that each letter in a person's signature represents a separate name.

121

__________, in which adults discuss storybook content with preschoolers, promotes many aspects of language and literacy development.

Interactive reading

122

Evidence suggests that formal academic training during early childhood

undermines young children's motivation and emotional well-being.

123

Which of the following statements is supported by research on Head Start?

Gains for Head Start participants are similar, though not as strong as for participants of university-based programs.

124

__________ child care is more strongly associated with cognitive gains than are other child-care arrangements.

Center-based

125

Which of the following statements about preschoolers' computer use is true?

Because computers can have educational benefits, most early childhood classrooms include computer-learning centers.

126

Children acquire vocabulary so efficiently and accurately that some theorists believe that

they are innately biased to induce word meanings using certain principles.

127

According to Erikson, once children have a sense of autonomy, they become

less contrary than they were as toddlers.

128

__________ seems to foster a more positive, coherent early self-concept.

A warm, sensitive parent-child relationship

129

Elsie describes herself by saying, "I'm not afraid of the dark, no way!" Elsie probably

has parents who reminisce with her about times when they resolved upsetting feelings.

130

Which of the following statements about emotional understanding is true?

Attachment security is related to more elaborate parent-child discussions of feelings that highlight the emotional significance of past events.

131

__________ is/are vital in managing emotion in early childhood.

Effortful control

132

When guilt occurs in appropriate circumstances and is not accompanied by shame, it is related to

good adjustment.

133

__________ plays a role in whether empathy prompts sympathetic, prosocial behavior or a personally distressed, self-focused response.

Temperament

134

When parents are __________, their children are likely to react with concern to others' distress.

warm and sensitive

135

3-year-old Sasha makes a structure out of toy blocks. Sasha is engaging in __________ play.

constructive

136

Which of the following play behaviors is a cause for concern in a child?

aimless wandering and hovering near peers

137

Which of the following reticent and passive peers is most likely to be accepted by his or her peers?

Yi Min, a Chinese boy

138

One of the best ways for Johann's mom to promote peer interaction skills is for her to

provide opportunities for Johann to play with peers.

139

Which of the following types of parent-child play is most strongly linked to social competence in the child?

mother-daughter play

140

Which of the following statements about inductive discipline is true?

Induction gives children information about how to behave that they can use in future situations.

141

When practicing induction, warnings, disapproval, and commands are

sometimes necessary.

142

Conscience formation is promoted by __________ discipline.

inductive

143

According to social learning theorists,

children learn to behave morally largely through modeling.

144

Warmth and responsiveness, competence and power, and consistency between assertions and behavior are all

characteristics of a model that increase a child's willingness to imitate the model's behavior.

145

Research on the consequences on punishment reveals that

white parents usually consider physical punishment to be wrong.

146

Research on punishment shows that spanking is

associated with a rise in behavior problems if parents are cold and rejecting but not if they are warm and supportive.

147

Sending a child to her room for a few minutes

is useful when a child is out of control.

148

The cognitive-developmental perspective regards children as

active thinkers about social rules.

149

Which of the following statements about social experience and moral understanding is true?

Children learn to care about the welfare of others from warm, sensitive parental communication.

150

To sit next to her mother at a restaurant, Diana pushes her little brother Mark out of the way. This is an example of __________ aggression.

physical

151

Which of the following statements about aggression is true?

Boys are more likely than girls to be targets of harsh, inconsistent discipline.

152

Most preschoolers believe that

women cannot be police officers.

153

Which of the following statements about gender-role learning in gender-segregated peer groups is true?

Boys are especially intolerant of "cross-gender" play in other boys.

154

Gender-schematic thinking is so powerful that when children see others behaving in "gender inconsistent" ways,

they often distort their memory to make it "gender consistent."

155

Which of the following statements about the uninvolved child-rearing style is true?

At its extreme, uninvolved parenting is a form of child maltreatment called neglect.

156

Which of the following statements about cultural values, laws, and customs and their effect on child maltreatment is true?

Societies that view violence as an appropriate way to solve problems set the stage for child abuse.

157

Couples can ease the transition to parenthood by

sharing child care right after the baby arrives.

158

In induced labors, __________ than in naturally occurring labors.

contractions are harder and closer together

159

Carol lives in Wyoming and works for a small company with 12 employees.
Carol hopes to take 12 weeks of maternity leave.
What advice can you give Carol?

Federal law mandating unpaid maternity leave does not apply to her employer.

160

A combined Apgar score of _____ or better indicates that an infant is in good physical condition.

7

161

Lightening occurs when the

fetus's head drops low into the uterus.

162

Mothers who are supported during labor-either by a lay birth attendant or a relative or friend with doula training...

less often have instrument-assisted or surgical deliveries.

163

Which of the following statements about single-mother families is true?

About 40 percent of U.S. births are to single mothers.

164

What is the difference between palmer, ulnar, and pincer, and plantar grasps?

??

165

What is the difference between experience-expectant and experience-dependent brain growth?

Experience-Expectant Brain Growth Refers to the brain's rapidly developing organization, which depends on ordinary experiences, opportunities to explore the environment, interact with people, and hear language and other sounds.
Normal infants and children are expected to experience this type of growth.

Experince-Dependent Brain Growth occurs throughout our lives. It consists of additional growth and the refinement of established brain structures as a result of specific learning experiences that vary widely across individuals and cultures.
Reading, playing piano, video games....

166

What is the benefit of breastfeeding?

Breastmilk is easily digested
Nursing mothers are less likely to get pregnant.

167

What is the difference between a primary, secondary, and tertiary circular reaction?

??

168

What are the different types of attachment?

??

169

What is the amygdala’s function?

When does it tend to be more active?

??

170

What theory describes early childhood children’s problem-solving strategies?

??

171

Theory of mind

??

172

How do researchers measure temperament?

Is it stable over time?

??

173

Goodness-of-Fit

??

174

Habituation
Violation of Expectation

Habituation:
Refers to a gradual reduction in the strength of a response, due to repetitive stimulation.

175

What is intermodal perception?

??

176

Effortful control
Executive functioning

??

177

Cardinality
Ordinality
Estimation

??

178

What is the percentage of mothers who breastfeed their newborns?

77% of American mothers breastfeed after birth, but more than 1/3 of them stop by 6 months.

179

Professor Patil believes that babies are born with a set of innate knowledge systems.
Each of these prewired understandings permits a ready grasp of new, related information and therefore supports early, rapid development.
Professor Patil’s beliefs are consistent with the __________ perspective.

core knowledge

180

In the information-processing system, information first enters

the sensory register.

181

__________ controls attention, suppresses impulses, coordinates information in working memory, and flexibly directs and monitors thought & behavior.

Executive function

182

Research on infant attention demonstrates that __________ between birth and 4-5 months of age.

habituation time decreases

183

The greatest drawback of the information-processing perspective is its difficulty with

putting the components of cognition into a broad, comprehensive theory.

184

According to Vygotsky, children master activities through

joint activities with more mature members of their society.

185

Most infant test scores

do not tap the same dimensions of intelligence measured at older ages.

186

Linguist Noam Chomsky reasoned that

children are born with a series of inborn modules that are specialized for different aspects of language acquisition.

the rules of sentence organization are too complex to be directly taught to even a cognitively sophisticated young child.

187

Which of the following sounds is the best example of babbling?
A) “aaaaa”
B) “ooooo”
C) “rrrrr”
D) “nanana”

nanana

188

Children’s language comprehension

develops ahead of production.

189

Your friend Gary is looking for a high-quality childcare center for his 8-month old infant, Anna.
Gary knows you are in a child development class at OSU.
He asks you what daycare setting would be best for Anna’s development.

Describe signs of a high-quality daycare.

Physical setting
Toys and equipment
Caregiver-child ration
Daily activities
Interaction among adults & children
Caregiver qualifications
Relationships with parents
Licensing & accreditation

190

Using Thomas & Chess’s model of temperament, identify and describe the 3 categories of children.

Do all children fit into one of these categories?
Explain.

In 1956, Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess initiated the New York Longitudinal Study, a groundbreaking investigation of the development of temperament that followed 141 children from early infancy well into adulthood. When detailed descriptions of infants’ and children’s behavior obtained from parental interviews were rated on nine dimensions of temperament, certain characteristics clustered together, yielding 3 types of children:

The easy child quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences.

The difficult child is irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely. Difficult children are at high risk for adjustment problems—both anxious withdrawal and aggressive behavior in early & middle childhood.

The slow-to-warm-up child is inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences. Compared with difficult children, slow-to-warm-up children present fewer problems initially. However, slow-to-warm-up children tend to show excessive fearfulness and slow, constricted behavior in late the preschool and school years, when they are expected to respond actively and quickly in classrooms and peer groups.

Of the participants in Thomas & Chess’s longitudinal study, 40% were identified as easy children, 10% were identified as difficult children, 15% were identified as slow-to-warm-up children, and 35% of the children did not fit any of the categories.
Instead, they showed unique blends of temperamental characteristics.

191

Marasmus

wasted condition of the body caused by a diet low in all the essential nutrients.

severe undernourishment causing an infant's or child's weight to be significantly low for their age (e.g., below 60% of normal).

Often occurs while mother is nursing, but produces insufficient milk

192

Kwashiorkor

Caused by an unbalanced diet very low in protein.
Usually strikes after weening
Causes swelling

193

Perceptual Narrowing Effect

Perceptual sensitivity that becomes increasingly attuned with age to information most often encountered