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Flashcards in Exam 2 Review Deck (38):
1

Physical dependence

Withdraw

2

Tolerance

State of adaptation which results in decreased drug effect over time.

3

Addiction

Chronic neurological & biological disease w/ impaired control over drug use, compulsive use, continued use despite harm.

4

Opioids

Adverse effects: constipation, nausea, vomiting, sedation, respiratory depression, urinary retention

SLOWS EVERYTHING DOWN

5

Post-op diet

Protein
ZAnC...ED
Zinc, vitamins A,C, E, & D

6

Emergency consent

Two signatures from doctors not involved in case

7

Restlessness in post-op.

HYPOXIA - unless otherwise states

8

Brain functions altered by mental illness & psychotropic medications

Maintenance of homeostasis
Regulation of ANS & hormones

9

Dopamine (neurotransmitter/monoamines)

Decrease: Parkinson’s disease & depression
Increase: schizophrenia, mania

10

Norepinephrine (neurotransmitter/monoamines)

Decrease: depression
Increase: anxiety attacks

11

Serotonin (neurotransmitter/monoamines)

Decreased: depression
Increase: anxiety attacks

12

Histamine (neurotransmitter/monoamines)

High levels associated w/ anxiety & depression

13

Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid (neurotransmitter)

Decrease: anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, mania, Huntington chorea
Increase: reduction of anxiety, schizophrenia, & mania

14

Glutamate

The major mediator of excitatory signals in the CNS
Involved in most aspects of normal brain function, including cognition, memory, & learning.

15

Cholinergics

Acetylcholine
Increase: depression
Decrease: Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington chorea, Parkinson’s disease

16

Neurotransmitter (peptides-neuromodulators)

Substance P - regulations of moof & anxiety
Role in pain management
Somatostatin - decrease: Alzheimer’s
Increase: Huntington disease
Neurotensin- decrease levels in CSF of pt. w/
schizophrenia.

17

Antidepressant drugs - monoamines oxidase.
inhibitors

Catecholamines: norepinephrine, epinephrine,
Dopamine
Indolamines: serotonin

18

Monoamines oxidase

Enzymes that destroys monoamines

19

Monoamines oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

Drugs that increase concentrations of monoamines by inhibiting MAO

20

Anti-depressant drugs : monoamine oxidase inhibitors

Phenelzine (Nardil)
Tranylcypromine (parnate)


TYRAMINE RESTRICTION

21

Tricycle (Cyclic) antidepressant (TCAs)

Amitriptylylene (Elavil), Nortriptyline (Pamelor)

Increase norepinephrine
Side effect - anticholinergic effects

22

Selective serotonin reputake inhibitors (SSRIs)

Fluoxetine (Prozac), Sertaline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil)

Increase serotonin

23

Serotonin norepinephrine disinhibitors (SNDIs)

Mirtazapine (remeron)


Increase serotonin & norepinephrine

24

Serotonin antagonist/reuptake inhibitors (NRIs)

Atomextine (strattera)

Treat ADHD when stimulants not tolerated.

25

Norepinephrine dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs)

Bupropion (Wellbutrin)


Do not act on serotonin system

26

Lithium

Stabilizes depression & mania
Narrow therapeutic index
Potential for toxicity
Tremor, ataxia, confusion,convulsions, & N/V
>1.5 toxic
Level drawn 12 hours after last dose
Can cause fluid shift because Li is a salt

27

Antipsychotic drugs/first generation agents (FGA)

-“ine”
Adverse reactions
Dystopia - muscle stiffness
Akathisia - restlessness
Tardive dyskinesia
Drug induced Parkinson’s
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Orthostatic hypotension

Positive symptoms schizophrenia

28

Second generation (AGA) atypical antipsychotic drugs

Target + & - symptoms of schizophrenia
“-done”
“-pine”

29

Depersonalization disorder

Feeling unreal, detached, outside of body, dreamlike, numb

30

Dissociative amnesia

Psychologically induced memory loss.
Severe stressor

31

Dissociative amnesia w/ fugue

Unexpected travel

32

Dissociative identity disorder

Multiple personality

33

Neutrophils

Largest %
Initial attack
Granualocyte
Neutral - 50%
Neutralize
Shifting - left shift
Pus - yellowish white

34

Eosinophils

Excrete
Allergic reaction

35

Basophils

1% - least amount
Base
General/allergic

36

Monocytes

Becomes macrophage
phage means eat

37

T-Cells

Directly attacking
T-boning

38

B-cells

Synthesizing antibody response
Natural killer