Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (25):
1

The Invertebrate "Brain"

1. no brain, only nerve net
2. no brain (central ganglia), cerebral ganglia on snail is in its head
3. centralized brain, like insects

2

Ganglia

collections of neurons that control a few local functions

3

centralized brain

communicates with the whole body

4

Earthworms

learn with only 302 neurons total, chloride and sodium experiment

5

Mushroom bodies

located in the center of the bee brain, expand with foraging experience NOT AGE, potentially spatial cognition

6

The Vertebrate Brain

All vertebrate brains have the same basic structure:
1. Forebrain (Telencephalon + Diencephalon)
2. Midbrain (mesencephalon)
3. Hindbrain (cerebellum, pons, medula)

7

Cortex

Only mammals have a cerebral cortex

8

Human brain size

has more than doubled in the last 2 million years

9

Absolute Brain Size

humans do not have the largest brain or most total neurons. larger animals generally have larger brains and more neurons.

10

Relative brain size

compared to body size, mammals have more brain for their body than other vertebrates

11

Encephalization Quotient

EQ calculated relative to a standard species (standard for mammals is the cat) human EQ is 7

12

Cortical Neurons

number of neurons in cortex, humans have the most

13

Human brain

accounts for 2% of body weight but consumes 20% of metabolic energy at rest alone

14

Learning Rate

learning to learn, measured by trail to performance

15

Inhibitory control

ability to resist interfering information, related to endocranial volume across species

16

Intensive foraging-related cognitive skills

1. extractive foraging with tools
2. memory demands for food caching

17

Home range size

related to foraging demands, is correlated to brain size in primates

18

Two social cognitive skills

1. reasoning ability
2. communication

19

Social demands

in primates the size of their cortex is related to the average size of their social group

20

Innovation

1. foraging on novel food items
2. acquiring novel behaviors
3. complexity of social relations

21

Human Uniqueness candidates

1. technology
2. shared intentionality and social cognition
3. language
4. relational reasoning

22

Bipedalism (4 million)

freed hands to carry and throw things, allowed us to travel long distances on less energy

23

Shared intentionality

when two people are looking at the same thing (reference point) and they know they are looking at the same thing. usually have (a goal)

24

Humans vs apes

human children only differed from apes on social tests, the physical tests were the same

25

relational reasoning

relational reasoning is understanding an abstract relationship between entities (non-human primates primarily think about things they can directly observe, while humans think about abstract patterns and relations)