Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (29):
1

Transitive Inference

deducing relations between novel items based on previously learned relations (greater than, sweeter than, smarter than, etc.) Requires deductive reasoning

2

Novel pairing

colorful stars; monkeys perform well, pigeons only perform well with pairs that have A (always press) and E (never press)

3

Scrub jay social heirarchy

scrub jays can infer their rank with a stranger bird based on how a known bird interacts with it (if know bird is submissive, and J is submissive to known bird, J will be submissive to stranger bird)

4

Chiclid fish

use transitive inference to determine which fish to associate with in the tank

5

Mutual exclusivity

assumption that a novel label refers to a novel object (the collie dog knows when a word is different, must refer to the different toy)

6

Analogy and Second Order Logic

Analogical reasoning has been observed in chimpanzees but not often and not in any other animal. Requires second order logic (finding relations between relations) which is difficult for non human animals.

7

The Endowment Effect

People value an equally priced object more if they already own it. (Capuchins more highly value what they already own)

8

Irrational Biases

Loss Aversion and the Endowment Effect (called Framing Effects)

9

Planning

Some behaviors appear to involve planning, but they are genetic compulsions, not considerations of future consequences

10

Tool

an external object used as a functional extension of mouth or beak, hand or claw, in the attainment of an immediate goal

11

Causal reasoning

Understanding the cause and effect of one object's behavior on another object. Key cognitive faculty thst divides humans from animals

12

Extractive Foraging

Tool use tends to emerge when there's no competition with animals who have physical adaptations for extractive foraging (getting food out of a shell or hiding place)

13

Contingency

Association between behavior and outcome, no understanding of its cause; associations emerge gradually by trial and error

14

Existence Proof of Causal Reasoning

There is usually at least one animal who uses causal reasoning

15

Metacognition

Thinking about your own thoughts

16

Theory of Mind

Thinking about other people's thoughts

17

Blindsight

Can unconsciously detect object locations to avoid obstacles (can "see" something. just doesn't know it)

18

Self Concept

representation of "me" including own body. own actions, and own thoughts

19

Wynne's Association-Based Argument

1) An animal can sense its own movements 2) With experience, associates its movements with the image in the mirror 3) argues for an "own body concept"

20

Altruism

refers to the behavior that increases the reproductive success of others at a cost to one's self; makes no evolutionary sense unless the individual is related to you (inclusive fitness)

21

SC Cooperation

best among egalitarian bonobos, limited in others; limited by willingness or cognitive understanding

22

SC Fairness

monkeys reject anything less than the best reward

23

SC Helping

true altruistic helping doesn't make evolutionary sense; some examples of helping with reaching in chimps

24

SC Social Learning

many animals learn socially; only apes learn my imitation, like human culture

25

SC Teaching

uniquely human?; meerkats, chimpanzees

26

Four Essential Features of Human Language

1) Symbolic - words stand for things 2) Abstract - words do not have features of the things they represent 3) Syntax - words are organized into categories, and uttered according to rules 4) Generative - totally novel combinations of words are created and understood (recursion is an algorithm of this)

27

Metacog Model: Direct Access Theory

feelings of knowing are introspective; come directly from an awareness of memory

28

Metacog Model: Cue Utilization Theory

feelings of knowing come from external cues like ease of processing, not from access to or awareness of memories

29

High Fluency vs. Low Fluency Training Pictures

high fluency is dark and visible, low fluency is light and not as visible (**no difference in reaction time between high and low frequency cues)