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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (34)
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1
Q

What is Extended Producer Responsibility?

A

Strategy to place a shared responsibility for end-of-life product management on the producers, and all entities involved in the product chain, instead of the general public

Product designs that minimize negative impact on human health and the environment at every stage of the product’s life cycle

2
Q

What does the Chemical Accident Prevention Program rule require?

A

Requires regulated facilities to coordinate emergency response with local responders

3
Q

What is required by EPCRA?

A

Facilities must submit information about annual release of toxic chemicals

4
Q

What chemical was DuPont protecting?

A

PFOA; perfluorooctanoic acid

5
Q

What is PFOA used for?

A

Production of teflon for non-stick frying pans

6
Q

What are the three types of costs and benefits?

A
  1. ) Private (incurred by the producer or consumer)
  2. ) External (experienced by others than the producer or consumer)
  3. ) Social (private + external)
7
Q

When does a perfect market exist?

A

Social costs = private costs

Social benefits = private benefits

8
Q

What is an externality?

A

Costs or benefits to those who were not part of a private economic transaction

9
Q

What is a positive externality?

A

A benefit to those not part of an economic transaction

Ex: private garden benefits neighbors plus bees and other pollinators

10
Q

What are 4 examples of incentive-based government regulations?

A
  1. ) Payments
  2. ) Subsidies
  3. ) Tax credits
  4. ) Low-interest loans
11
Q

What are 3 examples of neurotoxins?

A

Lead, PCB, and mercury

12
Q

Why create principles for green chemistry?

A

They provide criteria that can be used to clarify what are truly sustainable chemicals and chemical processes

13
Q

What practical use do the 12 Principles of Green Chemistry have?

A
  1. ) They can be used as a tool for designing solutions for real problems
  2. ) They can help identify unsustainable practices
14
Q

What are 3 ways that businesses can benefit from green chemistry?

A
  1. ) Greater compliance with environmental legislation
  2. ) Reduced costs associated with waste treatment and disposal
  3. ) Innovating “greener” products to entice customers
15
Q

Elevance Renewable Sciences

A

Laundry detergents for cold water

16
Q

Chempol® MPS paint

A

Biobased Sefose oil paint for minimizing VOCs

17
Q

BASF

A

Degradable plastics

18
Q

Nature Works

A

Biodegradable plastics

19
Q

Codexis

A

Reduction of reagents

20
Q

Sherwin-Williams

A

Minimizing VOCs

21
Q

What is the most common exposure route for heavy metals?

A

Ingestion

22
Q

How does iron toxicity in soil affect plants?

A

Dark-green foliage, stunted growth of tops and roots, and dark brown/purple leaves

23
Q

What are 3 methods to reduce iron toxicity?

A
  1. ) Improved Water Management
  2. ) Applications of Phosphorus & Zinc
  3. ) Genetically Modified Crops with Iron Toxicity Tolerance
24
Q

What are 4 ways that copper can be released into the environment?

A
  1. ) Mining/Industrial Processes
  2. ) Wastewater
  3. ) Combustion of fossil fuels
  4. ) Phosphate fertilizer production
25
Q

What are some possible side effects of copper intake?

A

Liver damage, kidney damage, death

26
Q

What are some long-term effects of zinc exposure?

A

Anemia, pancreatic damage, and decrease in HDL cholesterol

27
Q

What are symptoms for arsenic exposure?

A

Abdominal pain, destruction of red blood cells, shock, and death

28
Q

What is a Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP)?

A

A chemical substance that persists in the environment, bioaccumulates through the food web, and poses a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment

29
Q

What are the health effects of POPs in humans?

A

Reproductive, developmental, behavioral, neurologic,

endocrine, and immune

30
Q

What are 3 heavy metals of concern?

A

Lead, mercury, cadmium

31
Q

What is the classification used by the Stockholm Convention?

A
  1. ) To be ELIMINATED
  2. ) To use with RESTRICTION
  3. ) UNINTENTIONAL production
32
Q

Rotterdam Convention

A

For certain hazardous Chemicals and pesticides in international trade; provides Parties with a first line of
DEFENCE AGAINST HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS

33
Q

What are the 4 provisions of RCRA?

A

Ignitability, Corrosivity, Reactivity, Toxicity

34
Q

Define toxic waste

A

Any waste that may cause death or severe injuries to the exposed victims