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Flashcards in exam 3 Deck (78):
1

difference between gender and sex

* Sex
Biological category M/F
* Gender
Psychological sense of being masculine/feminine male/women

2

what age able to distinguish from boy and girls

age 1

3

behaviors by age 2

* By age 2- boys behave more independently and less compliantly than girls

4

high level of androgen (male hormone) in prenatal environment

* Androgen insensitivity (xy chromosomes, physical traits of woman)
* Parent treatment of child by gender
* Reinforced by parental choice and/or hormonal levels
girls might be more masculine due to high levels of androgen

5

gender identity established by what age `

age 2 in preschool years
Children consistently label themselves and others as male or female

6

gender identity

sense of being male or female

7

males play and gender

* More rough and tumble play
* Same-sex playmate preference around age three years

8

females play and gender

* Organized games and role playing
* Same-sex playmate preference around age two years

9

differences noted in male and female preschoolers by what age `

2 years

10

* Preschoolers expect boys to demonstrate:

* Competence
* Independent
* Forcefulness
* Competitiveness

11

* Preschoolers expect girls to demonstrate:

* Warmth
* Expressiveness
* Nurturance
* Submissiveness

12

* Gender-related behavior learned from observation of others’ behaviors

* Social learning

13

same sex

homosexuality

14

opposite sex

heterosexuality

15

both sex

bisexual

16

sexual orientation

direction of what sex they are attracted to

17

2 factors of sexual orientation

genetic and biological factors
conditioning

18

* Identical twins more likely to be homosexual
* Hormones may play a factor
* The prenatal environment

genetic and biological factors

19

* Rewarding homosexual vs. heterosexual experiences

conditioning

20

Bandura's ______ Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation

social learning

21

In psychology and cognitive science, a schema (plural schemata or schemas) describes a pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them.

social schema

22

The understanding that a person's gender remains the same even if superficial characteristics such as clothing, hairstyle, or activities undergo change; for instance, a boy remains male evein if he puts on a dress or plays witha doll.

gender constancy

23

* Frequency of sexual intercourse ____ with age

decreases

24

sex in adulthood

* Adults have more freedom
* Women no longer need to practice birth control
* Sexuality remains an important part of life for most people across the lifespan

25

Dating and Psychological Intimacy

* Cultural influences affect dating patterns
* Dating in early and middle adolescences = intimacy ?
* Gay and lesbian couples in adolescence
* Dating as prelude to marriage

26

* Intimacy

* Close, intimate relationship with others

27

* Isolation

* Feelings of loneliness and fearful of relationships

28

* A state of powerful absorption in someone
* Labeling theory: the experience of romantic love (being in love)

passionate love

29

* The strong affection that we have for those with whom our lives are deeply involved

companionate love

30

stern bergs theory

triangular theory of love, 3 components
intimacy
passion
decision/commitment

31

* Intimacy

* Feelings of closeness, affection, and connection

32

* Passion

* Motivational drives: sex, physical closeness, and romance

33

* Decision/commitment

* Thoughts of love and determination to maintain it

34

* Homogamy-

stay in the same

35

* Hypergamy-

when women marry up

36

* Hypo gamy-

when women marry down

37

Men increase in status,

pool widens

38

* Women increase in status,

pool shrinks

39

Phases of Marital Satisfaction

* Our satisfaction in long term relationships takes a U shape pattern
* Decline after birth of children
* Increase when youngest child leaves home
* Returning to a level of satisfaction similar to early marriage

40

recent higher % of divorce in who

* Divorce rate down in last 20 years - rising for older couples due to delaying having children; low marital satisfaction

41

* Play is critical to the overall development of children
* Changes over time
* Becomes more sophisticated, interactive, cooperative
* Gradually more dependent on social and cognitive skills
* Children work hard to avoid conflicts or smooth over disagreements

the work of play

42

Functional

* Play that involves simple, repetitive activities typical of three year olds
* Ex. Skipping, jumping, pushing cars on the floor
* Be active and action
* Age 3

43

Constructive

* ​Play in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something
* Ex. Build a house out of legos, puts puzzle piece together
* Age 4

44

Parellel

* ​Play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other
* Preschool

45

Onlooker

* ​Children watch others at play but don’t participate themselves
* Ex. Preschool

46

Associative

* Sharing, borrowing, but different tasks, different play
* Not working together, just sharing

47

Cooperative

* ​Interact with one another
* Take turns
* Play games
* Ex. Girls play dress up and have fashion shows

48

Damon Stage 1

* 4-7
* Looking at what toys they play with
* Appearance

49

Damon Stage 2

* ​Basing friendship on trust
* Age 8-10
* Taking others personal qualities
* Counting on others for help

50

Damon Stage 3

* ​11-15
* Psychological friendships
* Shared actives
* Intimacy
* Connections
* Can you trust this person?

51

Sex Cleavage

* Boys play with boys
* Girls play with girls
* Middle childhood
* Sexes separate

52

Boys Friendship

* Large group
* Dominant
* Re establish if threats
* Hierarchy

53

Girls Friendships

* Pair off
* 1 or 2 best friends
* Not a large network
* Status is equal

54

Friends in Middle Childhood

* Provide emotional support/help children handle stress
* Teach children emotional regulation
* Teach communication with others
* Foster intellectual growth
* Allow chided to practice relationship skills

55

* Personal Fable

* View of death unrealistic
* Sense of invincibility- risky behavior?

56

adolescence and death common causes

Accidents, homicide, suicide, cancer, AIDs

57

death is young adulthood

* Prime time of life- death is unthinkable
* Actively pursing life goals- anger and impatience

58

Death in Middle Adulthood

* Life threatening disease not surprising
* Fear of death greatest

59

causes of death in young adulthood

* Accidents, suicides, homicides, AIDs, cancer
* End of early adulthood: disease

60

causes of death in middle adulthood

* Heart attack or stroke are the most frequent causes

61

Death in Late Adulthood

* Realize death is imminent
* Face and increasing number of deaths in their environment
* Less anxious about dying

62

causes of death in late adulthood

* Causes
* Cancer, stroke, and heart disease
* Terminal decline

63

terminal decline

* Experience a drop in cognitive performance; memory, ability to think clearly, communicate clearly

64

Programs for death, dying and grief

Death Education

65

* Crisis intervention education

suicides right away need it

66

* Routine death education

regular. death education

67

Thanatologist-

death researcher and educator
* Increase public awareness and affected practices and policies related to death

68

hospice care

end of life care

69

kubler stages of death and dying

denial
anger
bargain
depression
acceptance

70

* During this stage, the initial (and most common) emotional response to the knowledge of impending death is denial. People in this stage say, 'No, not me. It can't be!' According to Kubler-Ross, denial serves as a defense mechanism.

* Denial

71


* Once the dying person accepts that the diagnosis is correct he or she may become very angry. Feelings of rage or resentment may overcome this person and the anger may be directed at others as well. The person may ask, 'Why me?'

Anger

72

* Asking for extra time
* Barter with doctors, family, or God

* Bargaining

73


* Shouldn’t be leaving the ones I love
* Only thing left

Depression

74

* Calm and peace
* Work through it

* Acceptance

75

DNR-

do not resuscitate
* Want to be let go
* Don’t want extraordinary life saving intervention
* Determines whether current quality of life will be improved or diminished by particular intervention
* Determines decision maker role

76

Living Will

* To gain more control over decisions regarding the nature of their deaths, people are increasingly drafting legal documents while healthy and lucid
* Living will
* Health care proxy
-someone to take decisions over you
* Durable power of attorney

77

* Bereavement

* Acknowledgment of the objective fact that one has experienced a death
someone you dont know personally enough to grief

78

* Grief

* A person’s emotional response to loss