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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (40):

What factors caused the national economy of the U.S. to emerge? (7)

Our national economy formed around dominant cities emerging from coast to coast urbanization


During the East Coast period of U.S. urban development, how did city planners structure real estate? (7)

City planning consisted in the laying out of streets, and real estate was standardized and easily converted into varying uses (the “grid plan”).


Which city was most prominent during the Midwest period of U.S. urban development? (7)

New York


Cities planned so that people could get around by foot were called what? (7)

Walking cities


Urban real estate during the West Coast period of U.S. urbanization was characterized by what? (7)

mixed property use, walking city and as a vast concentrated mixture of groups, classes, and functions. West coast period talks about a certain way of real estate in terms of residential and businesses.


What is the correct sequence in the evolution of U.S. transportation? (7)

Steamships, Canals, Railroads, Automobiles


Why was the development of the steamship important? (7)

The NYC trade route was greatly enlarged through the opening of the Eerie Canal, creating a route to the Great Lakes waterways. Transportation costs were cut to a mere fraction of what they had been prior.


Know about the development of the automobile (7)

Zone of accessibility = automobiles took this from 6 miles to 25 miles - urbanites could now travel further more easily.


How can government support affect technologies? (7)

Urbanite use of public transportation declines to the point that government support shifts to the automobile.Shifts. All tech begins as a luxury, if government supports it luxury becomes necessity


Urban expansion in the 19th century had what effect(s)? (7)

1890s Migration out of the central city had become a “mass movement” (Flanagan, 221). 1920s: there is substantial suburban development in cities like Atlanta, Cleveland, Milwaukee, and Buffalo.


Define metropolitan area (7)

extended geographical areas including suburbs and other areas within the scope of a city’s influence.


Know about the creation of the suburbs (7)

Edge cities = refers to the more recent trend of systematic migration away from the urban core of cities.


What factor(s) contributed to the rise of the Sunbelt? (7)

➢ Post-WWII deindustrialization and the increase of service jobs.
➢ Lower land, labor, and energy costs, as well as lower taxes, attracted businesses.
➢ Federal government policies favoring the Sunbelt region.
➢ Energy reserves were located in this region.
➢ Warmer climates.
➢ A lucrative tourist industry emerged in this region.


The “urban ecology” perspective emphasizes which factor(s)? (8)

• Focuses on varying land uses in cities and the systematic relationships that tie those different uses together.
• Urban ecology envisions an urban environment characterized by interrelationships between the various facets of the city.
• Presupposes that the market itself, aided by technology will tend to create an urban system that is rational and therefore predictable.


Which urban ecologist(s) focused on “natural areas” of evolving urban land use? (8)

Robert Park


What did McKenzie’s “Ecological Framework” feature? (8)

➢ Tendencies toward area specialization and the segregation of dissimilar population.
➢ The centralization of specialized services and decentralization of nonspecialized services.
➢ Concentrated patterns of commercial and industrial growth = population concentration and dispersion.
➢ Competition among urbanites for territorial control, achieved through the processes of invasion and succession. Populations that move in, out and concentrate in an area.


Know Burgess’ concentric zones (8)

➢ Zone 1: Central commercial zone
➢ Zone 2: transition zone
➢ Zone 3: zone of worker’s homes.
➢ Zone 4: higher quality residential zone
➢ Zone 5: commuter zone.


Which factors led Hoyt to come up with his sectoral theory? (8)

he revised Burgess’ model based on his finding that homogeneous areas tend to grow outward in wedges rather than neatly defined consistent rings.


Which urban ecologist(s) came up with the “multiple nuclei” (patchwork) model of urban land use? (8)

Harris & Ullman


What were the problems with the concentric zone theory? (8)

Generalized, only relevant to Chicago.


Know the modifications of the urban ecology perspective (8)

• Social area analysis = recognizes identifiable clusters in the city structured around three factors:
➢ Economic status
➢ Family status
➢ Ethnic classification
• Factorial ecology an expansion of social area analysis using computer technology to factor in a greater number of variables.


What is the common idea in most forms of Political Economy theory? (8)

• Likewise, the Political Economy category broadened considerably to include a variety of different theoretical approaches with one thing in common: urban patterns are symptomatic of class conflict.


Expanded sociological perspectives, both regional and global, have been made necessary by what process? (8)

Rationalization of space = “the unification of the economic value of different elements of population and other resources into a single strategic market system”


Know what is true of early U.S. immigrants (5)

• Typically, early immigrants ended up living in the poor areas of American cities.


Which conflict revolves around established groups and new immigrants? (5)

• Established groups in the U.S. suspected new immigrants of being a threat to America in many ways, generally regarding them in negative terms from the beginning of our history.


Thoroughly understand pan-ethnicity and pan-ethnic groups (5)

• Pan-ethnic groups= sometimes, ethnic groups within a diverse society will move to a higher level of ethnic commonality, merging with other ethnic groups for the advantages such an arrangement provides.


Know examples of pan-ethnic groups (5)

• Hispanic or Latino
• Native Americans
• Asian American
• Middle Eastern
• Muslim


Minority group

defined by a lack of power, subordination to a dominate group, and a conscious self-awareness. (not called this because they are smaller (often they are, not always), Refers to the amount of power that you have even if you exceed in population you still may have less power. Men vs. women.



a typology of human beings loosely based on physical differences.



is perceived on many different levels, in different ways, and utilizes different terminology, all depending on who the “other” is in historical and/or geographical context.






belief system





In what year did the first wave of immigrants to the U.S. stop? (5)

• The first wave of immigrant arrivals began with the founding of the U.S. and continued until 1921, when new anti-immigration legislation temporarily limited immigration.


An urban neighborhood established by immigrants in the U.S. that helps future immigrants is called what? (5)

• Ethnic enclave = a distinct neighborhood in a city where one ethnic group lives and seeks to preserve aspects of its culture.


What is the Great Migration? (5)

(WWI-1970) = a migration from the southern to northern United States that demanded a rapid transition from rural to urban life.


In the 1950s, the initial movement to the suburbs was called what? (5)

• 1950s: “white flight” from the central cities to suburbs.
• From cities to suburbs, those who could afford it. Most of them were white.
• Keep minorities from living in white neighborhoods.


What can often aggravate negative feelings toward new immigrants? (5)

• Xenophobic reactions to the immigrant workforce are often motivated by economic.


Asian Americans faced intense discrimination during which period of U.S. history? (5)

• 1980s: Asians faced new discrimination as a global economy begins to emerge, becoming the scapegoat for the “threats” of deindustrialization and foreign competition.


The reality of “ethnic switching” among Native Americans has raised what issue? (5)

• 1950-2000 the Native American population increases from 380,000 to well over 4 million.
• This increase is due to changes in enumeration techniques on the part of the Census Bureau and “ethnic switching”
• 1952: the Bureau of Indian Affairs begins a relocation program in which the majority of Native Americans eventually end up moving from reservations into urban areas.