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Flashcards in exam 3 Deck (123):
1

nasal septum

divides external nares

2

external nares aka

nostrils

3

path through nasal cavity

1. external nares
2. nasal vestibule
3. nasal cavity

4

what protects external nares?

guard hairs

5

what is nasal vestibule lined with?

stratified squamous epithelium

6

nasal cavity

-Traps dust particles
-Composted of CT and respiratory epithelium
- where air can be warmed by underlying venous plexus

7

respiratory epithelium

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells (secrete mucus)

8

Nasal concha

-several thin, scroll-shaped bony elements forming the upper chambers of the nasal cavities
-increase the surface area of these cavities, providing for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lungs.

9

nasal conchae

- in walls of nasal cavity
-cause air to come in contact with mucous membrane
-internal nares lead to pharynx.

10

pharynx parts

nasopharynx
oropharynx
laryngopharynx

11

larynx

-"voice box"
- controls pitch of voice

12

thyroid cartilage aka

Adam's apple in men bc of testosterone

13

order of cartilage in larynx

thyroid cartilage
arytenoid cartilage
cricoid cartilage

14

true vocal cords

vocal folds, vibrate with expelled air

15

false vocal cords

vocal folds (true vocal cords)
vibrate with expelled air
vestibular folds (false vocal cords)
protect the vocal folds and help to close the glottis when we swallow

16

epiglottis

-covers opening of larynx (glottis) during swallowing
-when fails, cough reflex

17

trachea

wind pipe

18

tracheal cartilage is made of

hyaline cartilage

19

order of trachea

-inferior- carina
-splits into 2 main bronchi
-lobar bronchi
-segmental bronci
-bronchiole

20

pathway of bronchi

-bronchi turn into
-bronchioles (alveoli attached to walls)
-alveolar ducts
-alveoli

21

alveoli

gas exchange occurs with blood capillaries located adjacently

22

airways

decrease in size but surface area increases as you travel inferiorly

23

alveolar sacs

clusters of alveoli around an alveolar duct

24

Type I pneumocytes

increase surface area for gas exchange

25

Type II pneumocytes

secrete surfactant

26

right lung

3 lobes: Superior, middle, inferior

27

left lung

2 lobes: Superior and inferior

28

order of parietal cavity

parietal pleura
pleural cavity
visceral pleura

29

respiratory system

-Function: exchange gases between air and blood
-CO2 out, O2 in

30

ventilation

mechanical process of moving air in/out of lungs

31

perfusion

exchange of gases

32

inhalation

-diaphragm contracts
-increase volume in thoracic cavity

33

exhalation

-diaphragm relaxes
-pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure, so air forced out

34

Boyle's law

as volume increases, pressure decreases (inverse relationship)

35

normal respiratory rate for adults

16-20 breaths/min

36

tachypnea

>20 breaths/min

37

bradypnea

<16 breaths/min

38

measuring tool for measuring capacities

spirometer (estimates volume expired)

39

wet spirometer

measures volume of air actually expired

40

tidal volume

-Norm: 500 mL
-Definition: volume of air displaced during normal breathing
-Measured with handheld spirometer by forcibly exhaling the same amount you typically do during normal exhalation

41

expiratory reserve volume

-Norm: 1,100 mL
-Definition: maximum amount of air that can be exhaled with after normal exhalation
-Measurement with handheld spirometer by forcibly exhaling max amount of air after normal exhalation

42

inspiratory reserve volume

-Max amount of additional air that can be inhaled after normal respiration
-Typically not measured with handheld spirometer

43

vital capacity

-Total volume of air that can be forcefully expelled from lungs after maximum inhalation
-Can be measured with handheld spirometer by inhaling completely and exhaling maximum amount into device
-Normal Vital Capacity: use to compare your vital capacity with like individuals
-Your vital capacity/normal vital capacity x 100 = % normal vital capacity

44

residual volume

-Air left in lungs after max inhalation
-Norm: 1,00 mL

45

total lung capacity

all 4 volumes

46

flow and resistance

inversely proportional

47

aerobic

-Moderate levels of exercise, longer duration (marathon)
-Incomplete depletion of oxygen

48

anaerobic

-High intensity, short duration (sprinting)
-Depletion of oxygen (demand>availability)

49

FEV1/VC:

-proportion of VC that an individual is able to expire in the first second of forced expiration to the full vital capacity
-Norm: 65-75%

50

Obstruction

-Airways narrowed increasing resistance
-Ex: asthma, inflammation (bronchitis), excess mucous, COPD
-Slower exhalation (increased resistance with increased velocity)
-FEV1 lower than normal

51

Restrictive

-Scarring of lung tissue, cannot fully inhale (lungs are less elastic)
-Emphysema, cystic fibrosis
-Normal/high FEV1

52

digestive tract

-food tube
-comes into contact with food
- Esophagus, stomach, small/large intestine, etc

53

Accessory organs

-Necessary for absorption as well but do not come into direct contact with food
-Liver, gallbladder, pancreas, etc

54

layers of digestive tract

mucosa
submucosa
muscularis
serosa

55

mucosa

contains CT layer called lamina propria closest to lumen

56

submucosa

mostly CT

57

muscularis

– smooth muscle to propel material through tract

58

serosa

visceral peritoneum

59

parietal peritoneum

outer layer of peritoneum

60

Esophagus

-Takes food from pharynx, through diaphragm, into stomach
-

61

food entering esophagus

bolus

62

contraction of esophagus

peristalsis

63

as food travels through esophagus

goes from mostly skeletal to mostly smooth muscle

64

lining of esophagus

adventitia

65

canal of esophagus

lumen

66

inferior aspect of esophagus

has esophageal sphincter to prevent reflux

67

food once enters stomach

chyme

68

stomach

-on left side of abdominal cavity
- very low pH (very acidic)

69

sphincter that prevents back flow in stomach

esophageal sphincter

70

sphincter that prevents premature release of stomach contents in small intestine

pyloric sphincter

71

stomach order

cardia
fundus
body
pyloric part

72

small intestine

small in diameter, long (17 ft)

73

movement in small intestine

peristalsis

74

role of small intestine

absorb nutrients

75

three parts of small intestine

duodenum
jejunum
ileum

76

valve between small and large intestine

ileocecal valve (stops back flow into SI)

77

teniae colie

band of longitudinal muscle (in large intestine)

78

haustra

puckers/pouches in intestinal tract (in large intestine)

79

omental appendages

fat lobules (in large intestine)

80

salivary glands

-secrete saliva into oral cavity
-contains mucus to lubricate food
- contains salivary amylase (digestive enzyme)

81

three pairs of salivary glands

parotid
submandibular
sublingual

82

function of large intestine

-absorption of water
-formation of feces

83

vermiform appendix

Near junction of small and large intestine

84

liver function

-produce digestive enzymes
-movement of nutrients
-produces blood plasma proteins
-detoxifies material in body
-produces bile

85

liver 4 lobes

quadrate lobe
right lobe
caudate lobe
left lobe

86

pancreas

-Exocrine and endocrine functions
-Parts: tail, body, head

87

enzyme/buffers move from

pancreas
pancreatic duct
duodenum

88

gallbladder

-Releases bile emptying into duodenum via common bile duct
-Located just inferior to liver
-bile storage

89

purpose of rugae in stomach

allow stomach to expand

90

bile pathway

liver
left and right hepatic ducts
-sphincter closes
common hepatic ducts
cystic duct
stored in gallbladder

91

3 structures make up the nasal septum. What are they?

-vomer
-the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
-the nasal cartilage

92

Name the openings between the nasal cavity and the pharynx

internal nares

93

What is the name of the structure that prevents fluid from entering the nasopharynx during swallowing?

uvula

94

What is the name of the large cartilage of the anterior larynx?

thyroid cartilage

95

Where is the tracheobronchial tree located?

lungs

96

emphysema

destruction of alveoli in lungs, decreases surface area of lungs

97

How does the decrease in vital capacity potentially influence a person's athletic performance of aerobic condition as he or she ages?

vital capacity tends to gradually decrease with age because the elastic fibers in the lungs decrease also. This results in less elasticity and an increase of compliance if the lungs.

98

What is the pressure difference between the external air and the pleural cavity when inhalation just begins?

intrapulmonary pressure drops 3mm/Hg below atmospheric pressure and air flows into lungs

99

IRV=

VC-(ERV+TV)

100

How does carbon dioxide change the acid-base condition of a solution when present in excess?

makes it more acidic by forming carbonic acid (H2CO3)

101

lungs located in

pleural cavity

102

part of the stomach closest to the small intestine

pyloric region

103

cell type in the muscularis

smooth muscle

104

location of villi

mucosa

105

where are lacteals located in the digestive tract

mucosa of the small intestine

106

what membrane holds the tongue to the floor of the oral cavity

lingual franulum

107

what part of the tooth is found above the neck

the crown

108

what is the layer of a tooth superficial to the dentin

enamel

109

What are the names of the salivary glands located anterior to the ear

parotid glands

110

Where is the lesser omentum found?

between the liver and stomach

111

Name 2 functions of the pancreas

-provides digestive enzymes for proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids
-secretes solution that buffers stomach acid

112

the target heart rate zone for exercise is

60-80% for the maximum heart rate (MHR) for healthy adults... the maximum heart rate for an individual is his or her age subtracted from 220

113

tongue is made of _____ tissue

skeletal

114

4 types of papillae

-foliate
-fungiform
-filiform
-circumvallate

115

Tongue has taste receptors for

taste buds

116

A tooth consists of a

crown, neck, root

117

crown

exposed part of tooth

118

neck

constricted portion of the tooth

119

root

embedded into the jaw

120

innermost portion of the tooth consists of the

pulp cavity

121

muscles around the wall of the oropharynx are the

pharyngeal constrictor muscles

122

the space in the esophagus that the food passes through is called the

lumen

123

in the stomach, what is partially digested food called

chyme