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Flashcards in Exam 3 Important information Deck (69)
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1

What are some things you should do before a Cardiac catheterization?

-Consent
-Allergies
-Baseline Vitals, (pedal pulses)
-Check for infection
-Educate on risks

2

What is the most common defect?

Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

often associated with other anomalies (trisomy's 21, 13, 18)

3

What are the major change in blood flow in a child after birth?

Closing of foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus

blood flow to lungs increased

4

What defects are associated increased pulmonary blood flow

Atrial Septal Defect
Ventricular septal defect
Patent ductus arteriosus

5

What defects are associated with obstruction to blood flow from ventricles

Coarctation of aorta
Aortic stenosis
Pulmonic stenosis

6

What defects are associated with decreased pulmonary blood flow

Tetralogy of Fallot
Tricuspid atresia

7

What defects are associated with mixed blood flow

Transposition of great arteries
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
Truncus arteriosus
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

8

Explain hypoxemia

-condition in which arterial oxygen tension is less than normal
-Identified by a decreased arterial O2 saturation
--hypoxia
--cyanosis
--polycythemia
--clubbing

9

Infective Endocarditis

-An infection of the inner lining of the endocardium
--streptococcus, staphylococcus, fungal infections--> Candida albicans

requires immediate treatment with high-dose antibiotics

Prophylaxis- 1 hour before dental procedures

10

Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart disease

Rheumatic fever-- inflammatory disease occurs from mistreated strep throat or scarlet fever

Affects joints, skin, brain, serous surfaces, and heart

Rheumatic heart disease causes permanent valve damage

11

Hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia)

-Excessive lipids
-Children who are at risk-- identify and treat early

Dietary prevention
Medication if cant be changed

12

Cardiac Dysrhythmias

Can occur in children with normal hearts

Brady-abnormally slow
Tachy- abnormally rapid
Conduction disturbances--irregular heart rate

13

Pulmonary artery hypertenstion

-increase of pulmonary artery pressure

Dyspnea with exercise, chest pain, syncope

There is no known cure
-supplement with oxygen, anticoagulants, vasodilators, lung transplant-- higher mortality than other lung transplant patients.

14

Systemic Hypertension

Essential= No known cause
---genetic + environmental


Secondary= identifiable cause

In pediatrics, HTN generally secondary to structural abnormality or underlying pathology such as renal disease, cardiovascular disease, endocrine or neurologic disords

15

Cardiomyopathy

-Abnormalities of the myocardium in which the ability of the muscle to contract is impaired

-family or genetic cause, infection, deficiency states, metabolic abnormalities, collagen vascular disease


poor prognosis

16

Heart Transplantation

Physical and psychosocial assessment
prior to transplant

Mortality high for those on waiting list

Ventricular assist device as a bridge
transplantation improve
outcomes

Posttransplant concerns
*Rejection – leading cause of death in first 3 years, greatest risk<6mo
*Infection

17

Kawasaki Disease

-Monocutaneous lymph node syndrome
-Acute systemic vasculitis of unknown cause
-75% of cases is in children <5 yo
-Increased risk of formation of coronary artery aneurysm
-High dose IVIG to treat

18

Shock

-Inadequate tissue perfusion
-Varied causes with same physiologic outcomes (hypotension, hypoxia, metabolic acidosis)

--Causes--
Compensated shock, decompensated shock, irreversible or terminal shock, anaphylaxis, septic shock

19

Toxic Shock Syndrome

-Rare condition caused by exposure to toxins from Staphylococcus
-Causes multisystem organ failure
-Management is same as shock


Tampon use education

20

Apheresis

Removal of blood, separation of components, reinfuse portion

-Used to remove and save platelets from healthy donors

21

Anemia

The most common hematologic disorder of childhood
-Decrease in number of RBC's or hemoglobin concentration below normal, or both.
-Decrease oxygen-carrying capacity of blood

22

Iron Deficiency anemia

This is caused by inadequate supply of dietary iron
-Generally preventable

23

Sickle cell anemia

Hemoglobinopathies

-Partial or complete replacement of normal Hgb with abnormal Hgb S
-SCA is the most common sickle cell disease in African Americans,

-AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE DISORDER

- in areas of the world where malaria is common, individuals with sickle cells trait tend to have survival advantage over those without trait

24

What is the pathophysiology of sickle cell anemia

-Obstruction caused by sickled RBCs
-Vascular inflammation
-Increased RBC destruction
-Abnormal adhesion entanglement, and meshing of rigid sickle-shaped cells
-Local hypoxia
-Cellular death

25

Sickle cell crisis

Treatment:
-Treat the medical emergencies of sickle cell crisis
-prophylactic antibiotics
-Monitoring blood count
-Blood transfusion

26

Hemophilia

-Hereditary bleeder disorders that result from deficiencies of specific clotting factors

-80% of cases, the inheritable pattern is X-linked recessive

3 types: A and B, and Von Willebrand

A-Classic, deficiency of factor VIII

B- Christmas disease. deficiency of factor IX

Von Willebrand- deficiency of von Willebrand factor and factor VIII

27

HIV/AIDS

Virus takes over CD4+ lymphocytes, CD4+T cell count drops, increasing risk of infections

Transmission in pediatrics
-mother to child
-adolescent risky behavior


can manifest as malnutrition, short stature, and cardiomyopathy

28

What are the 5 major factors that affect the labor process?

Powers, Passenger, Position of mother, passageway, psychologic response

29

Passenger

Passenger (fetus and placenta): Size of fetal head, Fetal presentation, Fetal lie, Fetal attitude, Fetal position. Placenta also must pass through the birth canal, it can be considered a passenger along with the fetus; however, the placenta rarely impedes the process of labor in normal vaginal birth

30

Passageway

Birth canal

Bony pelvis and soft tissues