What are the three main parts of the cerebellum callded by their functional names?
pontocerebellum or cerebrocerebellum
What are the three main parts of the cerebellum called by their phylogenic names (matched with thier functional names in parentheses)?
Vestibulocerebellum (Archicerebellum) is composed of which anatomical parts?
Flocculonodular lobe (flocculus and nodule)
Picture: cerebrocerebellum is the same as pontocerebellum
Spinocerebellum (Paleocerebellum) is composed of which anatomical parts?
Vermis and intermediate parts of the hemispheres ("paravermis")
Picture: the cerebrocerebellum is another name for pontocerebellum
Pontocerebellum (neocerebellum) is composed of which anatomical parts?
Lateral parts of the hemispheres
Picture: Cerebrocerebellum is the same as pontocerebellum
what is the defining functions of the vestibulocerebellum?
•Maintaining equilibrium and coordinating eye, head, neck movement.
what is an example of a pathology that involves the vestibulocerebellum?
Torticolis (specifically spasmotic torticolis which is a form of dystonia - cervical dystonia)
what are the defining functions of the spinocerebellum?
•Coordinated truck and LE movements
what are the defining functions of the pontocerebellum?
quick finely controlled limb movement (mainly UE coordination)
what is an example of a pathology that involves the spinocerebellum?
what is an example of a pathology that involves the pontocerebellum?
(as in Huntington's Dance or Huntington's Chorea)
what is friedreich's ataxia?
Friedreich's ataxia is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that causes progressive damage to the nervous system. It manifests in initial symptoms of poor coordination such as gait disturbance; it can also lead toscoliosis, heart disease and diabetes, but does not affect cognitive function. The disease progresses until a wheelchair is required for mobility. Its incidence in the general population is roughly 1 in 50,000
does damage to the three regions of the cerebellum occur in isolation?
doesn't have to
can have injuries that inovle one, two, or three of the areas
Is the cerebellum isolated?
No It has conneections the basal ganglia, etc.
shappy: reeling wide-based movements related to gate
(I dissagree that it is mainly just gait. Ataxic gait is mainly gait, but ataxia seems to just mean uncoordinated movments from my experience outside of shappy's class. Wikipedia does seem to make special effort to point out the gait aspect though)
Ataxia (from Greek α- [a negative prefix] + -τάξις [order] = "lack of order") is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntarycoordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality. Ataxia is a non-specific clinical manifestation implying dysfunction of the parts of the nervous system that coordinate movement, such as the cerebellum. Several possible causes exist for these patterns of neurological dysfunction. Dystaxia is a mild degree of ataxia. Friedrich's ataxia has gait abnormality as the most common presenting symptom.
what is "decomposition of movement"?
-inability to correctly sequence fine coordinated movements/acts
–Inability to articulate words (motor function). “speech problems” per Dr. Shappy
–Inability to produce rapid alternating movement (Examples: flipping hands, moving leg up and down shin)
Definition of Dysmetria:
–Inability to control ROM (hard to pick up specific objects)
- –Rapid alternating eye movement (back and forth of the eyes; rapid alt of the eye movements)
- –Some people live in this state
define Scanning Speech:
- –Slow enunciation and a tendency for hesitation
- •It’s there, but it is slow and interrupted (almost a stutter)
- •Typically more at beginning of word or sylable
(slow speech, interrupted, hesitated)
define tremor (brief definition of it generally)
rhythmic ocillatitory movement
- –“another garbage tern”
- –Many types of tremors
- –Rhythmic alternating oscillatory movements of anything
- •Facial twitches
What are three things that an MD considers when making a medical diagnosis for cerebellar disorders?
- •Family history
- •Genetic testing
What are the things the PT can identify and evaluate in a pt with a cerebellar disorder? (9 examples)
The PT assists in diagnosis, outcome measures, assessment
- Decomposition of Movement
- Scanning Speech
Etiology of Cerebellar Disorders: 3 categories
- Congenital Malformations
- Hereditary Ataxias
- Acquired Conditions
Congenital Malforations: Characteristics/Details (3)
- –Manifest early in life
- –Example: maybe cerebellum maybe just didn’t form)
- –doesn’t progress (won’t get worse)
- –Variety of deficits is possible
Two types of Hereditary Ataxias
- Freidreich Ataxia
- Spinocerebellar Ataxia
What is Friedreich ataxia?
Shappy Notes: Genetic mutation; Progressive disorder
(see video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ThMH3WCUU4A)
(also is the crossfit guy vidio: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHlC1W9r704)
Friedreich's ataxia is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that causes progressive damage to the nervous system. It manifests in initial symptoms of poor coordination such as gait disturbance; it can also lead to scoliosis, heart disease and diabetes, but does not affect cognitive function. The disease progresses until a wheelchair is required for mobility. Its incidence in the general population is roughly 1 in 50,000.
What are Spinocerebellar ataxias
- •Ataxia, parkinsonism, dystonia, facial twitching
- –Will go into more detail with some of these later
Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) or also known as Spinocerebellar atrophy or Spinocerebellar degeneration, is a progressive, degenerative, genetic disease with multiple types, each of which could be considered a disease in its own right. An estimated 150,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with Spinocerebellar Ataxia. SCA's are the largest group of this hereditary, progressive, degenerative and often fatal neurodegenerative disorder. There is no known effective treatment or cure. Spinocerebellar Ataxia can affect anyone of any age. The disease is caused by either a recessive or dominant gene. In many times people are not aware that they carry the ataxia gene until they have children who begin to show signs of having the disorder.