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Flashcards in Exam 3 Study Guide Deck (14):
1

Direct Object Pronouns

The object that directly receives the action of the verb is called the direct object.

Bill hit the ball.
"Ball" receives the action of the verb "hit."

Sherry reads the book.
"Book" receives the action of the verb "reads."

The direct object can also be a person.

Sherry hit Bill. (The direct object is Bill)

The direct object answers the question "what?" or "whom?" with regard to what the subject of the sentence is doing.

Bill hit what?
Bill hit the ball.

Sherry hit whom?
Sherry hit Bill.

Often, it is desirable to replace the name of the direct object with a pronoun.

Example 1
Paul bought the flowers. He took the flowers home and gave the flowers to his wife.

Example 2
Paul bought the flowers. He took them home and gave them to his wife.

When the pronoun replaces the name of the direct object, use the following pronouns:

me (me)
te (you-familiar)
lo, la (him, her, it, you-formal)

nos (us)
los, las (them, you-all-formal)

In an affirmative statement with one verb, the direct object pronoun comes immediately before the conjugated verb.

Tengo = I have
Tengo la pluma. = I have the pen.
La tengo. = I have it.

If the direct object of the sentence changes to a masculine noun, the masculine pronoun must be used.

Juan lo tiene.
Juan tiene = John has
Juan tiene el libro. = John has the book.
Juan lo tiene. = John has it.

but

Juan la tiene.
Juan tiene = John has
Juan tiene la pluma. = John has the pen.
Juan la tiene. = John has it.

Likewise, if the direct object of the sentence changes from singular to plural, the plural pronoun must be used.

Juan lo tiene.
Juan tiene = John has
Juan tiene el libro. = John has the book.
Juan lo tiene. = John has it.

but

María los tiene.
María tiene = Mary has
María tiene los libros. = Mary has the books.
María los tiene. = Mary has them.

Further Examples:

la como
I eat it (feminine DO - la sopa, la comida, etc.)
lo como
I eat it (masculine DO - el pollo, el arroz, etc.)
la leo
I read it
lo leo
I read it
la veo
I see it
lo veo
I see it
la tengo
I have it
lo tengo
I have it
la compro
I buy it
lo compro
I buy it

In the previous examples, it is clear that the subject of the sentence is "I" because the verbs are all conjugated in the "yo" form. With other verb forms, it is often desirable to add a word to clarify the subject.

Juan la come. (la comida)
Juan eats it.

María lo tiene. (el libro)
María has it.

El chico la compra. (la pluma)
The boy buys it.

La chica lo ve. (el edificio)
The girl sees it.

Ustedes lo leen. (el periódico)
You-all read it.

Examples of plural direct objects:

Juan come dos sándwiches.
Los come. or Juan los come.

María tiene tres libros.
Los tiene. or María los tiene.

El chico compra dos revistas.
Las compra. or El chico las compra.

La chica ve dos coches.
Los ve. or La chica los ve.

Ella compra dos televisores.
Los compra. or Ella los compra.

Tenemos dos mesas.
Las tenemos. or Nosotros las tenemos.

Examples where the direct object is a person:

I know you.
Te conozco.

She loves him.
Ella lo ama.

She loves me.
Ella me ama.

Juan sees her.
Juan la ve.

They call us.
Ellos nos llaman.

We call them.
Los llamamos.

2

Indirect Object Pronouns
Indirect Object (IO), Direct Object (DO)

  • The IO tells us where the DO is going.
  • The IO answers the question "to whom" or "for whom."
  • Sentences that have an IO usually also have a DO
  • Sometimes the DO is not stated, but rather is implied, or understood.
  • The IO pronouns are: me, te, le, nos, les.
  • Place the pronoun before the conjugated verb.
  • Think in phrases, do not translate word-for-word.
  • Le and les are ambiguous.
  • Prepositional phrases are often used for clarity and for emphasis.

The indirect object (IO) tells us where the direct object (DO) is going.

He gives the book to María.
DO=Book
Where is the book going?
To María.
IO=María

He gives María the book.
DO=Book
Where is the book going?
To María.
IO=María

The indirect object answers the question "To whom?" or "For whom?" the action of the verb is performed.

He gives María the book.
To whom does he give the book?
To María.
IO=María

He buys me flowers.
For whom does he buy the flowers?
For me.
IO=me

Sentences that have an indirect object usually also have a direct object. Remember, the IO tells us where the DO is going. Notice how the sentences below just wouldn't work without a direct object.

He gives María . . .
the book, the pen, the diamond, etc.

He buys me . . .
flowers, candy, an ironing board, etc.

Sometimes the direct object is not stated; rather it is implied, or understood.

My mother writes me every week.
DO=letter (understood)
IO=me
(My mother writes me a letter every week.)

She told him.
DO=it (understood)
IO=him
(She told it to him.)

To identify the indirect object use these two guidelines:

  1. The IO tells us where the DO is going.
  2. The IO answers the question "to whom?" or "for whom" the action of the verb is performed.

When a pronoun takes the place of the name of the indirect object, use the following pronouns:

me (me)
te (you-familiar)
le (him, her, you-formal)
nos (us)
les (them, you-all-formal)

In an affirmative statement with one verb, the indirect object pronoun comes immediately before the conjugated verb.

Juan me compra un regalo.
John buys me a gift.
John buys a gift for me.

Juan te compra un regalo.
John buys you a gift.
John buys a gift for you.

Juan le compra un regalo.
John buys her a gift.
John buys a gift for her.

Juan nos compra un regalo.
John buys us a gift.
John buys a gift for us.

Juan les compra un regalo.
John buys them a gift.
John buys a gift for them.

Now, focus in on one part of each of the previous examples:

Juan me compra un regalo.
John buys (for) me a gift.

Juan te compra un regalo.
John buys (for) you a gift.

Juan le compra un regalo.
John buys (for) her a gift.

Juan nos compra un regalo.
John buys (for) us a gift.

Juan les compra un regalo.
John buys (for) them a gift.

Let's extract the IO phrase and its English equivalent:

me compra
buys (for) me

te compra
buys (for) you

le compra
buys (for) her

nos compra
buys (for) us

les compra
buys (for) them

Just like with the direct object, the indirect object presents a problem if one tries to translate word-for-word:

Juan me compra un regalo.
John for me he buys a gift.

The key to learning to use the indirect object pronouns is the same as the key for direct object pronouns. You must learn to think in phrases, not words. The phrases consist of a pronoun and a conjugated verb. In the following examples, note that the IO remains the same, while the subject of the phrase changes.

me compra
he buys me

me compran
they buy me

me compras
you buy me

The IO pronouns le and les present a special problem because they are ambiguous. That is, they can stand for different things.

le
to (for) him
to (for) her
to (for) you-formal

les
to (for) them
to (for) you-all-formal

The following sentences, while grammatically correct, are ambiguous:

Ella le escribe una carta.
Ella les escribe una carta.

Out of context, there is no way we can know the meaning.

Ella le escribe una carta.
She writes him a letter.
She writes her a letter.
She writes you (formal) a letter.

Ella les escribe una carta.
She writes them a letter.
She writes you-all (formal) a letter.

Since le and les can mean more than one thing, a prepositional phrase is often added to remove the ambiguity.

Ella le escribe a Juan una carta.
Ella le escribe a su hermana una carta.
Ella le escribe a usted una carta.

Ella les escribe a sus padres una carta.
Ella les escribe a ustedes una carta.

Sometimes a prepositional phrase is added not for clarity, but rather for emphasis.

Juan me da a mí el dinero.
John gives me the money.
(emphasizing that the money is given to me and not to someone else)

Juan te da a ti el dinero.
John gives you the money. (emphasis on you)

There is no ambiguity in the following sentence. It can only mean one thing.

Juan me da el dinero.
John gives me the money.

The addition of a prepositional phrase merely adds emphasis.

Juan me da a mí el dinero.
John gives me the money.

Let's sum up the important points of this lesson:

  • The IO tells us where the DO is going.
  • The IO answers the question "to whom" or "for whom."
  • Sentences that have an IO usually also have a DO
  • Sometimes the DO is not stated, but rather is implied, or understood.
  • The IO pronouns are: me, te, le, nos, os, les.
  • Place the pronoun before the conjugated verb.
  • Think in phrases, do not translate word-for-word.
  • Le and les are ambiguous.
  • Prepositional phrases are often used for clarity and for emphasis.

3

Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns are used in both Spanish and English whenever the subject of a verb is also its object. In other words, reflexive pronouns are used when the subject of a sentence is acting on itself.

me veo
I see myself (the person seeing and the person seen are the same.)

 

Reflexive Pronouns

me (myself)
te (yourself)
se (himself, herself, yourself, itself)
nos (ourselves)
se (themselves, yourselves)

me

Me lavo.
I am washing myself.

Voy a elegirme.
I am going to choose myself.


te

¿Te odias?
Do you hate yourself?

¿Puedes verte?
Can you see yourself?


se

Roberto se adora.
Roberto adores himself.

La niña prefiere vestirse.
The girl likes to dress herself.

La historia se repite.
History repeats itself.

¿Se afeita?
Do you shave yourself? 

El gato se ve.
The cat sees himself.


nos

Nos respetamos.
We respect ourselves, or we respect each other.

No podemos vernos.
We can't see each other, or we can't see ourselves.
 

Se

Se compran los regalos.
They are buying themselves gifts, or they are buying each other gifts.

4

Reflexive Verbs

A verb is reflexive when the subject and the object are the same

I wash myself.
subject: I
verb: wash
object: myself

Since the subject and object are the same, the verb is reflexive.

 

I wash the car.
subject: I
verb: wash
object: car

Since the subject and object are different, the verb is not reflexive.

When a verb is reflexive, the infinitive ends in "se."

lavar
to wash (non-reflexive)
lavarse
to wash oneself (reflexive)

There is one reflexive verb you have been using since you began studying Spanish.

llamarse - to call oneself

¿Cómo se llama usted?
What do you call yourself?

To conjugate reflexive verbs you need to use reflexive pronouns. These pronouns are positioned before the verb, while the ending "se" is dropped and the verb is conjugated normally.

lavarse (to wash)

yo me lavo
I wash (myself)

tú te lavas
you wash (yourself) (informal)

él se lava
he washes (himself)

ella se lava
she washes (herself)

usted se lava
you wash (yourself) (formal)

nosotros nos lavamos
we wash (ourselves)

nosotras nos lavamos
we wash (ourselves) (feminine)

ustedes se lavan
you-all wash (yourselves)(formal)

ellos se lavan
they wash (themselves)

ellas se lavan
they wash (themselves) (feminine)

The reflexive pronouns are not subject pronouns; rather they are object pronouns.

me (myself)
te (yourself)
se (himself, herself, yourself)
nos (ourselves)
se (themselves, yourselves)

The purpose of the reflexive object pronouns is to show that the action of the verb remains with the subject.

Juan se lava la cara.
Juan washes his face.

 

5

Reflexive Verb Conjugations

 

acostarse (ue)
to go to bed

me acuesto
te acuestas
se acuesta
nos acostamos
se acuestan

afeitarse
to shave

me afeito
te afeitas
se afeita
nos afeitamos
se afeitan

bañarse
to bathe, take a bath

me baño
te bañas
se baña
nos bañamos
se bañan

cepillarse los dientes
to brush one's teeth

me cepillo
te cepillas
se cepilla
nos cepillamos
se cepillan

despertarse (ie)
to wake up

me despierto
te despiertas
se despierta
nos despertamos
se despiertan

dormirse (ue)
to fall asleep

me duermo
te duermes
se duerme
nos dormimos
se duermen

ducharse
to shower, take a shower

me ducho
te duchas
se ducha
nos duchamos
se duchan

lavarse la cara
to wash one's face

me lavo
te lavas
se lava
nos lavamos
se lavan

levantarse
to get up

me levanto
te levantas
se levanta
nos levantamos
se levartan

quedarse (en cama, en casa)
to stay, to remain (in bed, at home)

me quedo
te quedas
se queda
nos quedamos
se quedan

vestirse (i)
to dress, get dressed

me visto
te vistes
se viste
nos vestimos
se visten

divertirse (ie)
to enjoy oneself, have fun

me divierto
te diviertes
se divierte
nos divertimos
se divierten

reunirse con amigos
to get together with friends

me reúno
te reúnes
se reúne
nos reunimos
se reúnen

sentirse (ie) bien/mal
to feel good/bad

me siento
te sientes
se siente
nos sentimos
se sienten

 

6

Saber and Conocer

Spanish has two verbs that can be translated in English as to know: saber (to know facts and information) and conocer (to know [be familiar with] a person, place, or thing).

SABER
sé (irregular)
sabes
sabe
sabemos
saben

CONOCER
conozco (irregular)
conoces
conoce
conocemos
conocen

saber + noun, saber + que, or saber + question word all mean to know facts and information.

saber + infinitive means to know how to do something

conocer + a name/person = to be familiar with a person.

conocer a + place/thing = to be familiar with a place or thing.

Mis primos bolivianos saben conducir, pero no conocen la ciudad.
My Bolivian cousins know how to drive, but do not know (not familar with) the city.

¿Conoces tú al amigo de María Elena?
Sí, lo conozco, pero no de dónde es.

¿Conocen ustedes el restaurante El Sol?
Sí, nosotros lo conocemos, pero no sabemos dónde está.

¿Sabe usted a qué hora abre la cafetería El Diamante?
Sí, abre a las 8:00 de la mañana, pero no a qué hora cierra.

¿Sabes tú quién está en la oficina?
que un estudiante está en la oficina, pero no lo conozco.

7

SER and ESTAR

SER (to be)

soy
eres
es
somos
son

ESTAR (to be)

estoy
estás
está
estamos
están

Uses of Estar

  • To talk about health.

¿Cómo estás? (How are you?)
Estoy bien, gracias. (I'm fine, thanks.)

  • To express location of people and objects.

Estamos en el hospital. (We are in [at] the hospital.)

  • To express actions currently in progress.

Está lloviendo. (It's raining.)

Estar can also be used with adjectives to describe a variety of states that are in some way a change from the normal state of the subject, or to describe things that do not really have a normal way of being.

Julieta está nerviosa hoy.
Julieta is (acting) nervous today. (The use of estar represents a change from her normal , calm state of being.) 

Ellos están estresados.
They are stressed. (They are normally relaxed people.)

Este plato está rico.
This dish is (tastes) delicious. (The food in front of me tastes great, even though sometimes the recipe doesn't turn out well.)

El café está caliente.
The coffee is hot. (I just made it; it could get cold.)

Uses of Ser

  • To express definition, occupation, or nationality, or otherwise equate the subject of the sentence with the word(s) following the verb.

Soy médico.
I'm a doctor.

Las enfermeras son bolivianas.
The nurses are Bolivian.

Esta medicina es un nuevo tratamiento para la malaria.
This drug is a new treatment for malaria.

  • To express orgin, composition, or possession.

Somos de Cochabamba.
We're from Cochabamba.

Son de María Luz.
They belong to María Luz

  • To tell time.

Son las 8:20

  • To indicate the time and location of events (to take place in English).

La operación va a ser in este hospital.
The operation is going to be (take place) in this hospital.

La reunión es a las 9:00
The meeting is (takes place) at 9:00.

Whereas estar + adjective describes a change from the norm, ser + adjective expresses the normal condition of the subject. Compare the following examples of ser with the examples of estar you saw previously.

Julieta es nerviosa.
Julieta is nervous. (She's a nervous person.)

Este plato es rico.
This dish is delicious. (In general, I like the recipe.)

El hielo es frío.
Ice is cold. (By definition, it's a cold substance.)

8

La Hora

Ways to ask for time:

¿Qué hora es?
What time is it?

¿Qué hora son?
What time is it?

¿Tienes la hora?
Do you have the time?

La Hora

  • The verb ser is used to express time.
  • Es la (singular) is used with una (1:00)
  • Son las (plural) is used for hours greater than 1 
  • Y is used to express minutes past or after an hour (Son las dos y tres. - 2:03)
  • Menos is used to express minutes before the hour (Son las dos menos cinco. - 1:55)
  • Cuarto = quince and media = treinta
  • El mediodía - Noon
  • La medianoche - Midnight
  • To ask at what time an event takes place, use ¿A qué hora…?
    To answer use a la / a las + time
  • En punto - Sharp or "On the dot" 
    (Son las dos en punto = 2:00)
  • De la mañana, de la tarde, or de la noche are used to express specific times.
  • Por la mañana, por la tarde, or por la noche are used to express general times.

9

Vocabulary

En la tienda:

el dependiente/a
salesperson

el cliente
customer

el probador
dressing room

el mostrador
display counter

la rebaja
reduction

el descuento
discount 

centro comercial
shopping mall

¿Qué tiempo hace?

está nublado
it's cloudy

hace buen/mal tiempo
it's nice/bad out(side)

hace calor/frío
it's hot/cold

hace fresco
it's cool

hace sol
it's sunny

hace viento
it's windy

llueve
it's raining

nieva
it's snowing

10

Los Meses y Las Estaciones 
Del Año

 

Los Meses Del Año

  1. enero
  2. febrero
  3. marzo
  4. abril
  5. mayo
  6. junio
  7. julio
  8. agosto
  9. septiembre
  10. octubre
  11. noviembre
  12. diciembre

Las Estaciones Del Año

el vierno
winter

la primavera
spring

el verano
summer

el otoño
fall, autumn

11

Preterit Tense

  • In general, the preterite is used for past actions that are seen as completed.
  • Always use an cccent mark in the final vowel for the first- and third-person singular forms of regular verbs, unless the verb is only one syllable.

To conjugate regular -ar verbs in the preterite, simply drop the ending (-ar) and add one of the following:

é
aste
ó
amos
aron

Hablar conjugated in the Preterite

hablé
hablaste
habló
hablamos
hablaron

Probarse (reflexive) conjugated in the Preterite

me probé
te probaste
se probó
nos probamos
se probaron

To conjugate regular -er and -ir verbs in the preterite, simply drop the ending (-er or -ir) and add one of the following:

í
iste

imos
ieron

Comer conjugated in the Preterite

comí
comiste
com
comimos
comieron

Vivir conjugated in the Preterite

viví
viviste
viv
vivimos
vivieron

Note: the nosotros forms for -ar and -ir verbs are the same in both preterite and present tenses: hablamos, vivimos.

Verbs ending in car, gar and zar have a spelling change in the “yo” form of the preterit.

  • car (qu)
    practicar
    (yo) practiqué
  • gar (gu)
    jugar
    (yo) jugué
  • zar (c)
    empezar
    (yo) empecé

Generally speaking, the preterite is used for actions in the past that are seen as completed. Use of the preterite tense implies that the past action had a definite beginning and definite end.

Juan habló de la una hasta las dos.
Juan spoke from one until two o'clock.
(clearly stated beginning and end)

It is important to realize that the beginning and the end may not always be clearly stated.

Juan habló dos horas.
Juan spoke for two hours.
(implied beginning and end)

Juan habló con la estudiante.
Juan spoke with the student.
(implied beginning and end)

The preterite is used for actions that can be viewed as single events.

Ella caminó por el parque.
She walked through the park.

Ellos llegaron a las ocho.
They arrived at eight o'clock.

The preterite is used for actions that were repeated a specific number of times, or occurred during a specific period of time.

Ayer escribí tres cartas.
Yesterday I wrote three letters.

Vivimos allí por cuatro años.
We lived there for four years.

The preterite is used for actions that were part of a chain of events.

Ella se levantó, se vistió, y salió de la casa.
She got up, dressed, and left the house.

The preterite is used to state the beginning or the end of an action.

Empezó a nevar a las ocho de la mañana.
It began to snow at eight in the morning.

Common Expressions Using Preterite

entonces
then

de momento
for the moment

aquella semana
that week

anteayer
the day before yesterday

en febrero
in February

el lunes
on Monday

siempre (when an end point is obvious)
always

una vez
once

anoche
last night

la semana pasada
last week

de repente
suddenly

por fin
finally

una noche
one night

12

Preterit Conjugations

llamar (to call)
llamé
llamaste
llamó
llamamos
llamaron

gustar (to like)
gusté
gustaste
gustó
gustamos
gustaron

echar (to listen)
eché
echaste
echó
echamos
echaron

bailar (to dance)
bailé
bailaste
bailó
bailamos
bailaron

buscar (to look for)
busqué
buscaste
buscó
buscamos
buscaron

jugar (to play)
jugué
jugaste
jugó
jugamos
jugaron

pagar (to pay)
pagué
pagaste
pagó
pagamos
pagaron

almorzar (to have lunch)
almorcé
almorzaste
almorzó
almorzamos
almorzaron

sentarse (sentar - to sit)
me senté
te sentaste
se sentó
nos sentamos
se sentaron

dormirse (dormir - to fall asleep)
me dormí
te dormiste
se durmió
nos dormimos
se durmieron

comer (to eat)
comí
comiste
comió
comimos
comisteis
comieron

13

Gustar and Similar Verbs

  • Is used to express preferences, likes and dislikes.
  • Is used with an indirect object pronoun
  • The subject of the verb gustar is whatever is pleasing to someone. 
  • Indicates that something singular or some things plural are pleasing. It is often conjugated in the third-person singular or third person plural form

 

Los usos de gustar en el presente

(a mí)
me gusta(n)

( a ti)
te gusta(n)

(a usted, él/ella)
le gusta(n)

(a nosotros/as)
nos gusta(n)

(a ustedes, ellos/as)
les gusta(n)

Gusta and Gustan.

Nos gusta la torta de chocolate.

No me gustan los frijoles

On the Exam: Make sentences with the verb gustar and the indirect object.

MODELO: 
a ti / las blusas rosadas. 
A ti te gustan las blusas rosadas

14

The Verb QUEDAR

Most common uses for quedar:

quedar

to be located
El teatro queda detrás del gimnasio

quedarle (like gustar)

to fit; to look good
¿Te quedan grandes esos zapatos?

to have left, have remaining
Sólo me quedan 10 dólares.

quedarse (reflexive)

to stay, remain
Me quedo en casa los domingos por la mañana.