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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (116):
1

True or False: Lactose intolerance is a condition that occurs if the body doesn’t produce enough lactase to break down lactose in the stomach.

False (Not the stomach; the intestines)

2

Based on what we’ve covered in lecture, which type of macromolecule would you expect ATP Synthase to be primarily composed of?

Proteins (Enzymes are proteins)

3

Koalas feed feces to their young to transmit bacteria that aid in digestion. Which type of macromolecule in particular are the bacteria helping to digest?

Carbohydrates

4

Pancreatic Lipase is an important enzyme in digestion. Which organelle is the primary site for synthesis of the same class of macromolecules that Pancreatic Lipase breaks down?

Smooth ER

5

Which of the following is both a requirement (input) and a product (output) of the aerobic cellular respiration process?

NADH

6

Why isn’t bile needed for the digestion of carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates are hydrophillic

7

Where would you expect to find sex chromosomes?

Both somatic cells and gametes

8

Where would you expect to find autosomal chromosomes?

Both somatic cells and gametes

9

How many times does DNA replicate in completing the full process of meiotic cell division?

1

10

How many times does DNA replicate in completing the full process of mitotic cell division?

1

11

In which of the following are the two genes (shown by black bars) most likely to be linked?

A (Chromosomes with genes on ONE chromatid and near each other)

12

Which of the following is most likely to represent a synonymous mutation to the following DNA sequence: AGG

D. AGA

13

True or false: If the two most closely related species on a phylogeny tend to co-occur, and occupy the same habitat, then speciation between them wasn’t allopatric.

False

14

True or false: Evolution is a process in which individuals evolve to gain higher fitness

False; population level, not individual

15

In which of the following interactions is coevolution least likely to occur?

Plant-pollinator because it's mutually beneficial

16

True or false: Photosynthesis is a process in which plants create energy

False; uses energy to create glucose

17

Which of the following is both an input and a product during the photosynthetic process?

NADPH

18

Although individual trees can’t move, tree populations can migrate, if their seeds are dispersed to a new area. Based on the US Forest Service’s research in 1999-2008, are tree species in the eastern U.S. migrating in sync with climate change?

No

19

Biome:

A broad ecological community defined by vegetation type
Ex) Deserts, rainforests, grasslands

20

Biomes are determined by:

Climate: Temperature and precipitation

21

Duluth is:

"Boreal" aka "Coniferous" forest

22

Minnesota has four biomes:

Clockwise: Coniferous forest, deciduous forest, prairie grassland, tall grass aspen parkland

23

Coniferous forest

Ex) Balsam fir, pine trees, cones
Moose found here (like BWCA)

24

Deciduous forest

Ex) Maple trees, maple syrup, oak trees, leaves

25

Prairie

Compass plant, badger,

26

Tall grass aspen parkland

Basically a savannah
Deciduous tress in the fields
Ex) Aspen with sandhill crane

27

Prairies require fire:

Trees dominate without it

28

Prescribed fires

Controlled, low temperature fire

29

Without fire:

Grassland/savannah-->dry forest=huge, devestating fire

30

The scientific concept of biomes came from:

Alexander von Humboldt

31

Humboldt's influence:

11 species, an ocean current, 4 universities, Humboldt, MN

32

Food webs:

Flow of energy within a biome
Illustrate complexity of energy flow

33

Energy flow through trophic levels

0.1% Apex predator
1% Consumers
10% Producers
100% Sun

34

The other 90%?

Lost as heat and incomplete digestion

35

Biomagnification:

Increase of toxin concentration up the trophic levels

36

How?

Producers absorb toxins, eaten by consumers and apex predators eat consumers

37

Biologists studied DDT (1944) warned it was highly toxic

Approved for use as a pesticide anyway (1945)
Banned in the USA (1972)
Ex) Thin eggshells

38

High biomagnification in the arctic

Pollutants collect in the arctic from distance sources
Intuit PCB concentration in 33 times higher than people in Southern Quebec

39

Biomagnification in Lake Superior

10% of newborn babies in Lake Superior basin have higher mercury levels higher than EPA standards

40

Population biology:

Growth, decline, interactions, and other aspects of populations

41

Survivorship curves reveal life history strategies

Most offspring die young=R strategists (small bodies)
Most offspring die old=K strategists (big bodies)

42

Ultimate R strategists: Mayflies

Lay up to 10,000 eggs
Adults live one day, mate, and die
Some adults have vestigial mouth parts

43

Population growth curve

Exponential growth phase
Equilibrium phase

44

Carrying capacity

The maximum population that an environment can support for a particular species
Boom and bust cycle around carrying capacity

45

Both R and K strategists boom and bust;

but oscillations are bigger in R strategist

46

R strategists reaches carrying capacity

sooner

47

Carrying capacity is labeled

K

48

K strategists

stay close to K

49

R strategists

oscillate farther from K (due to high productive rate)

50

Density dependent factors:

factors that limit population growth and become stronger in proportion to density
Predation risk
Limited food
Disease spread

51

Isle Royale is famous in population biology:

Only one wolf left
Population can't grow
Reach Isle Royale through ice bridge
1600 moose
Released from density dependent factor of predation

52

Deer prefer

Maple
Canada Yew is highly preferred by deer but uncommon

53

Deer are responsible for

40% of the change

54

Density dependent factor for humans

Food

55

Population expected to reach

9 billion by 2050 (7.4 billion today)

56

To feed the growing population, food production must increase by

70% over the next 30 years

57

Several of the earliest domesticated species are still important today

Wheat, lentils, cattle

58

Multiple origins of some domesticated crops

Barley in the Middle east and Tibet

59

Most crops are

Annual plants (Annual=one growing season)
Ex) Corn

60

Fewer crops are

Perennial plants (Many years, about one crop per year)
Ex) Raspberries

61

Annuals:

Mature quickly, plant every year

62

Perennials

Mature slowly, plant once and maintain

63

Monoculture

Only one species planted
Highly efficient

64

Polyculture

Several species planted together
Minimizes pest risk

65

Agroforestry

Polyculture that incorporates trees
As many as 25 crop species in one plot

66

Problems in agriculture

Water loss-needed to irrigate, being used faster than it's being replaced

67

Problems in agriculture

Soil loss-intense agriculture erodes soil, high winds blow topsoil away
Ex) Dustbowl of the 1930s

68

Problems in agriculture

Loss of biodiversity-Pesticides, habitat destruction, relies on pollinators (bees), corn is wind pollinated, and doesn't offer nectar, flowering only lasts 2-3 weeks in almond trees

69

Many bees are active

for several months

70

Pollinators shipped in because

there aren't enough bees

71

Apples and pears are

hand pollinated by people in Sichuan, China

72

Honeybees

Aren't native to the Americas

73

20,000 bee species

in the world

74

~400 bee species

in Minnesota

75

Deseritfication

More dry, arid land

76

The process of desertification of the land,

usually driven by human activity

77

Deforestation

Exposed soil dries out quickly
Dry soil doesn't absorb rain water and erodes
Trees struggle to grow in eroded areas
Reforestation prevents this

78

Overgrazing of cattle

Cattle eat vegetation, leaving bare land and compacted soil

79

Dams

Power about 1.3 million people

80

Flood water contains nutrient rich sediment

Goes into flood plain

81

Floodplain agriculture is important in human history

Omo River in Ethiopia

82

Dams

Disrupt floodplain ecosystems

83

Upstream reservoir

Floodplain permanently underwater
No agriculture possible
Sediment collects, bad for fish
Also clogs dam

84

Downstream reservoir

Not as much nutrient rich sediment
No sediment is bad for fish

85

Dams disrupt aquatic migration

Fish wants to go upstream to reproduce but can't
Coaster book trout reproduction threatened

86

Fish ladders

Structures built into dams that allow fish to migrate upstream

87

Dam affect indigenous ways of life

Klamath people

88

Dams flood sacred sites, force people to move

Waboose dam-cemeteries now underwater

89

Dams destroy beautiful natural features

Sete quedas (waterfall)

90

Dams linked to earthquakes

Pressure added to fault lines; at least 100 earthquakes associated with dams

91

Early Roman dams:

Used for water storage

92

Hohokam people (1-1450 AD in Southern Arizona)

Built intensive canal systems for irrigation (agriculture including corn, beans, cotton)

93

80 million gallons of water used daily

At golf course in Maricopa, Arizona

94

Beaver dams

Deep water upstream of dam provides protection from predators

95

Same as regular dams transforming habitat

Although not as extreme

96

However,

Beaver dams don't inhibit fish like human dams

97

Eucalyptus trees promote fire

Contain highly flammable oil=fire (like paper birch bark)

98

Trees survive fire, but resprout

Seeds released after fires and are invasive species in many parts of the world because they survive fires so well

99

Threats to species

1. Habitat destruction
2. Habitat fragmentation
3. Invasive species

100

Habitat destruction:

Logging, mines, residential, farms

101

How much tall grass prairie remains in the US?

About 1%

102

Mead's Milkweed

Occurs in prairies; federally endangered, smells like cloves

103

Who has the highest rate of deforestation in the world?

Indonesia

104

Because of this:

Orangutans are endangered; only found on two islands in Indonesia
Rainforests converted to Palm Oil plantations (not very diverse, like corn in US)

105

Orangutans:

"People of the forest"
orang=person
hutan=forest

106

Habitat fragmentation:

Areas of habitat
Are not equal to a continuous habitat of the same total area
Smaller population sizes, less genetic diversity

107

Small populations are vulnerable to extinction

Might not enter exponential growth phase
Inbreeding, low genetic diversity
Random events, reducing numbers

108

Many species require a minimum area to survive

Large species need large habitats (Bison have the Konza prairie in Kansas)

109

Invasive species

Kudzu: plant from Asia

110

Invasion and extinction through hybridization

Favored over both parent plants

111

Old growth forests

Often carry the same species as younger forests but are structurally different (higher DBH, more decomposing logs; providing homes for organisms)

112

Most of our deciduous trees were logged 100 years ago

Except the "Lost 40" in Itasca County

113

Conservation of processes:

Migration
River flooding

114

Biomes

Cross state and national borders

115

Sonoran desert

Animals want to cross (national) borders but can't

116

Breeding endangered species in captivity and reintroducing them to the wild

Whooping Cranes imprint on what they first see when they hatch
Biologists wear whooping crane costumes so they don't imprint on humans
Young whooping cranes follow "mom" for migration
Raptor education group in Antigo, Wisconsin