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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (50)
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1

It is difficult to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of viruses because of their
A) small genomes.
B) diverse capsid morphologies.
C) rapid evolutionary rates.
D) Both a and b
E) Both a and c

E. Both a and c

2

Which of the following statements about methanogens is false?
A) Some live in volcanic vents on the ocean floor.
B) Some are thermophilic.
C) Methane is their preferred carbon source.
D) They prefer anaerobic conditions.
E) They are associated with mammalian flatulence.

C. Methane is their preferred carbon source

3

A universal feature of the life cycles of land plants is
A) morphologically identical gametophyte and sporophyte stages.
B) genetically identical gametophyte and sporophyte stages.
C) alteration of generations between haploid gametophytes and diploid sporophytes.
D) All of the above
E) None of the above

C. alteration of generations between haploid gametophytes and diploid

4

Which of the following are synapomorphies for both gymnosperms and angiosperms?
A).Seeds
B) Heterospory
C) Flowers
D) Both a and b
E) Both a and c

D. Both a and b

5

The sister group to the vertebrates includes an animal called a(n) _______, which produces large amounts of slime as a defense mechanism.
A) Slug
B) Hagfish
C) Lamprey
D) Ascidian
E) Eel

B. Hagfish

6

Which of the following statements about the brown algae is false?
A) They are almost exclusively marine.
B) A few are many meters in length.
C) They are stramenopiles.
D) They are all multicellular.
E) They use the same photosynthetic pigments as do land plants.

E. They use the same photosynthetic pigments as do land plants

7

The calcification of an internal skeleton is characteristic of the
A) brachiopods.
B) phoronids.
C) urochordates.
D) echinoderms.
E) hemichordates.

D. echinoderms

8

The molluscan body plan includes three unique, shared, derived characteristics that support the monophyly of the group: the _______, the _______, and the _______.
A) visceral mass; radula; mantle
B) foot; visceral mass; mantle
C) foot; mantle; shell
D) foot; radula; mantle
E) visceral mass; mantle; shell

B. foot; visceral mass; mantle

9

The ancestor of the animal clade was probably a
A) ctenophore.
B) triploblastic acoelomate with spiral cleavage.
C) ciliated protist.
D) colonial flagellated protist.
E) None of the above

D. colonial flagellated protist

10

The large and remarkable pogonophoran annelids live near deep-ocean hydrothermal (volcanic) vents where food items are scarce. Many species are able to obtain enough nutrition because
A) they filter algae out of ocean water.
B) they feed on dead fish that sink to the ocean floor.
C) they are able to conduct photosynthesis.
D) their tissues harbor endosymbiotic bacteria that fix carbon by oxidizing hydrogen sulfide and methane.
E) they fix carbon from the minerals found in the ocean's muddy floor.

D. their tissues harbor endosymbiotic bacteria that fix carbon by oxidizing hydrogen sulfide and methane.

11

Which of the following is a broad nutritional category of prokaryotes that is recognized by biologists?
A) Physioautotrophs
B) Heteroautotrophs
C) Chemolithotrophs
D) Both a and b
E) Both a and c

C. Chemolithotrophs

12

A eukaryotic organism that undergoes alternation of generations in which different generations do not resemble each other morphologically is referred to as
A) gametophytic.
B) homomorphic.
C) heteromorphic.
D) isomorphic.
E) anisomorphic.

C. heteromorphic

13

Asexually reproduced groups of nearly identical organisms are known as
A) buds.
B) conjugates.
C) fruiting bodies.
D) clonal lineages.
E) myxamoebas.

D. clonal lineages

14

Which of the following groups exhibits exclusively radial symmetry?
A) Stramenophiles
B) Loboseans
C) Radiolarians
D) Heteroloboseans
E) Foraminiferans

C. Radiolarians

15

The cyanobacteria found in the internal mucilage-filled cavities of the hornworts serve to
A) provide structural support.
B) produce carbohydrates.
C) convert atmospheric nitrogen gas into a usable nutrient form.
D) convert atmospheric carbon gas into a usable nutrient form.
E) Both c and d

C. convert atmospheric nitrogen gas into a usable nutrient form

16

Bacteria are known for the many roles they play in biological communities. Which of the following is the rarest role for this group of organisms?
A) Nitrogen and sulfur processor in soils
B) Decomposer
C) Digestive aid
D) Industry and agricultural use
E) Pathogen

E. Pathogen

17

You are rowing a boat across a marine estuary at night and see flashes of light in the water. This is most likely a result of the action of
A) dinoflagellates.
B) diatoms.
C) diplomonads.
D) Both a and b
E) Both b and c

A. dinoflagellates

18

The microbial eukaryotes that are responsible for sleeping sickness and those that are responsible for malaria
A) are both alveolates.
B) both have insect vectors for transmission to humans.
C) cause the same symptoms.
D) both have gametocyte life stages.
E) All of the above

B. both have insect vectors for transmission to humans

19

Archaea is the closest sister group to the
A) bacteria.
B) bacteria and eukaryotes.
C) eukaryotes.
D) prokaryotes.
E) None of the above

C. eukaryotes

20

Cephalization is most commonly associated with
A) bilateral symmetry.
B) spherical symmetry.
C) lophophorate animals.
D) sessile animals.
E) radial symmetry.

A. bilateral symmetry

21

Which of the following is not considered part of the body plan of an organism?
A) External appendages
B) The symmetry of the body
C) The structure of the body cavity
D) The larval morphology
E) The segmentation of the body

D. the larval morphology

22

The evolutionary importance of plant tissue composed of tracheids is that it provides
A) a vascular system and structural support.
B) structural support and increased growth.
C) enhanced photosynthesis and structural support.
D) enhanced photosynthesis and a vascular system.
E) None of the above

A. a vascular system and structural support

23

A pseudocolomate animal lacks a
A) pseudocoel.
B) fluid-filled body cavity lined on the outside with mesoderm.
C) fluid-filled body cavity lined on the outside and inside with mesoderm.
D) body cavity.
E) fluid-filled body cavity.

C. fluid-filled body cavity lined on the outside and inside with mesoderm.

24

Which of the following is not a characteristic of land plants?
A) Development from embryos protected by tissues of the parent plant
B) Cell walls containing cellulose
C) Chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b
D) Anaerobic respiration
E) Starch as the storage carbohydrate

D. Anaerobic respiration

25

Before they had the ability to decipher nucleotide sequences, biologists classified prokaryotes based on several characteristics. Which of the following was not one of these characteristics?
A) Sensitivity to antibiotics
B) Modes of locomotion
C) Multiple genes
D) Nutritional requirements
E) Phenotypic characteristics like shape or color

C. Multiple genes

26

Nonvascular land plants have never evolved to the size of vascular plants, most likely because they lack
A) a photosynthetic mechanism.
B) an efficient mode of respiration.
C) an efficient system for conducting water and minerals.
D) mechanisms for nutrient and water absorption.
E) All of the above

C. an efficient system for conducting water and minerals

27

Stomata appear to have arisen first in the
A) mosses.
B) liverworts.
C) angiosperms.
D) hornworts.
E) club mosses.

A. mosses

28

Which of the following is not one of the traits that unite the protostomes?
A) Dorsal nervous system
B) Anterior brain
C) Bilaterally symmetrical body plan
D) Development of a mouth from a blastopore (in many species)
E) All of the above are traits that unite protostomes.

A. Dorsal nervous system

29

Dinoflagellates are common endosymbionts of
A) coral.
B) fungi.
C) other dinoflagellates.
D) tertiary endosymbionts.
E) None of the above

A. coral

30

All prokaryotes that use light as an energy source
A) use chlorophyll a as their photosynthetic pigment.
B) use bacteriochlorophyll as their photosynthetic pigment.
C) release oxygen gas.
D) produce particles of sulfur.
E) None of the above

E. None of the above