Flashcards in Exam 4 - part 3 Deck (56):
What is Erickson's definition of Bible inerrancy?
"The Bible, when correctly interpreted in light of the level to which culture and the means of communication were developed at the time it was written, and in view of the purposes for which it was given, is fully truthful in all that it affirms" (Erickson, p. 201)
What does inerrancy pertain to?
The Bible is truthful in what it affirms or asserts, not merely what is reported. False statements made by ungodly people in the Bible are still false, but they have been correctly reported.
Are discrepancies in recorded numbers to be considered errant, such as 24,000 deaths in the plague recorded in Numbers (Num 25.9) and 23,000 deaths recorded by Paul in First Corinthians (1 Cor 10.8)?
No, because "assertions [in the Bible] are fully true when judged according with the purpose for which they were written" (Erickson, p. 203). Rounded numbers are acceptable if that was not the point the author was trying to make.
What is Erickson's definition of the authority of the Bible?
"The Bible, as the expression of God's will to us, possesses the right supremely to define what we are to believe and how we are to live" (Erickson, p. 211).
What is meant by "veracious authority" in regard to the Bible?
The Bible leads those who read it to truth.
What about God reinforces the inerrancy of the Bible?
God is omniscient, so he cannot be ignorant of error.
He is omnipotent, so He could prevent error.
He is truthful, or veracious, so He can ensure that future Bible readers would not be misled.
What of history supports the concept of Bible inerrancy?
The church has historically supported inerrancy. Augustine and Luther made statements in support of inerrancy while Calvin spoke of the human tendency to err, and Scripture being the only safeguard against this.
What is the epistemological importance of inerrancy, and what is the "domino" theory?
How do we know the Bible is true? False in one proposition, uncertain in all. The Bible should be true in its historical and scientific data or else how can we trust its other parts?
What is the correct understanding of illumination?
"There is an internal working of the Holy Spirit, illumining the understanding of the hearer or reader of the Bible, bringing about comprehension of its meaning, and creating certainty concerning its truth and divine origin" (Erickson, p. 216).
Why is the Holy Spirit necessary for illumination?
God is transcendent and humans are limited. Humans are also sinful and need certainty in spiritual matters of life and death.
What does Matt. 13:13-15 and Mark 8:18 say about the human condition and need for the Holy Spirit to illuminate Scripture?
Humans hear but never understand. We see and never perceive.
What verse tells us that the god of this world has blinded the minds of unbelievers so that they cannot see the light of the gospel?
2 Corinthians 4:4
What verse tells us that the natural person has not received the gifts of the Spirit?
1 Corinthians 2:14
How does the Holy Spirit overcome the human condition of blindness? Give a Bible reference.
The eyes of our hearts are enlightened by the one-time regeneration of the Spirit (Eph. 1:18) and then His continuing work in a believer's life.
What are the four functions of the Holy Spirit?
1. The Holy Spirit will teach the believer and remind him about what Jesus has said.
2. "The Holy Spirit will witness to Jesus" (Erickson, p. 219).
3. "The Holy Spirit will convict the world of sin, righteousness, and judgment" (Erickson, p. 219)
4. "The Holy Spirit will guide believers into all truth" (Erickson, p. 219).
What is the view of absolute inerrancy?
The Bible is fully true in exact scientific, historical, theological, religious, and spiritual data. Apparent discrepancies must be explained.
What is the view of full inerrancy?
No difference from absolute inerrancy except the historical and scientific data are reported as phenomenal, or in other words, inexact approximations or how it appears to the eye.
What is the view of limited inerrancy?
The Bible is inerrant and infallible when it comes to doctrine, like salvation. But for historical and scientific data, the writers were limited in understanding. These parts of the Bible contain errors.
What is the view of inerrancy of purpose?
The Bible accomplishes its purpose of bringing people to Christ, not teaching truth. "Truth is through of not as a quality of propositions, but as a means to accomplish an end" (Erickson, p. 192). Pragmatic truth.
What is the view of accommodated revelation?
"The Bible came through human channels, and thus participates in the shortcomings of human nature" (Erickson, p. 192). The Bible is erroneous, containing some revelational and other nonrevelational elements.
What is the view of nonpropositional revelation?
The Bible is not in itself revelation, but points people to a personal encounter that is revelation. The Bible contains errors, but these are just the words of the Bible writers, not God. The Bible is still functional.
What is the view that inerrancy is irrelevant?
The issue of inerrancy is regarded as "false or distracting" (Erickson, p. 193) It distracts us from what the Bible is trying to teach about our relationship to God. Inerrancy inhibits impartial exegesis, and is imposed.
Why is inerrancy important?
There is a concern for the reliability and dependability of the Scriptures.
What was B. B. Warfield's abstract approach to dealing with the problem passages in Scripture?
The difficulties did not need to be explained.
What was Edward J. Young's and Louis Gaussen's harmonistic approach to the phenomena of Scripture?
Difficulties in the phenomena can be resolved with currently available information, like other recorded events or scientific data.
What is the moderate harmonization approach to the phenomena of Scripture?
"The problems are taken seriously, and an effort is made to solve them or relieve the difficulties as far as this is reasonably possible with the data currently available" (Erickson, p. 199) This is Everett Harrison's approach. Inerrancy is a "corollary of full inspiration" (Erickson, p. 199).
What was Edward Carnell's approach to dealing with the phenomena of Scripture?
"Inspiration guarantees only accurate reproduction of the sources the Scripture writer employed, not correction of them" (Erickson, p. 199). There may be errors in the source material.
What is Dewey Beegle's solution to the difficulties in some passages of Scripture?
The Bible does err. There are real and unsolvable problems in the Bible.
What does Erickson say is the best approach to dealing with the phenomena of Scripture?
Everett Harrison's view of relieving the difficulties with available data, and acknowledging that we don't have all the answers.
To what does inerrancy pertain?
What is affirmed or asserted rather than what is merely reported.
Give an example of the Scripture writers recording more than they understood.
John writing about his vision on the island of Patmos.
How must the truthfulness of Scripture be judged?
In terms of its meaning in the cultural setting where it was written, and the purpose for which it was written.
How are the Bible's reports of historical and scientific matters phenomenal rather than technical?
"The writer reports how things appear to the eye" (Erickson, p. 204). There is no effort in the Bible for scientific exactness, such as describing what held the axhead afloat.
Why is it not good to prejudge difficulties in the Biblical text as error?
The problems could be resolved when more data comes in.
Is "inerrancy" a good term to use?
It should not be understood in the sense of scientific exactness, but otherwise, because it has become common, it is a useful term. A better understanding is that the Bible tells the truth.
What would constitute an "error" in the Bible?
Any statement that plainly contradicts fact. If the walls of Jericho never fell, or Israel did not leave Egypt, then the Bible is erroneous.
What does the doctrine of Bible inerrancy apply to?
The originals in a strict sense, but also to the copies in a derivative sense in that they reflect the originals. Inerrancy does not extend to the copyists and translators.
What is the conflict and between Gen. 1:11-12 and Gen. 2:5? What is the resolution?
Gen. 2:5 seems to suggest that plants came after man was made to till them, but plants were made on the third day. But Gen. 2 serves to supplement the details of Creation, and verse 5 may refer only to the kind of plants that require cultivation. They could have been delayed in growing.
Where did Cain get his wife?
Gen. 5:4 says that Adam and Eve had sons and daughters. Incest was not a problem in the first generation because the first humans were pure, coming from God.
What is the conflict between Num. 25:9 and 1 Cor. 10:8? What is the solution?
The plague following Israel's worship of Baal and Peor is recorded to have killed 24,000 people. Paul later records it as 23,000 dead. These both may be rounded numbers, or Paul may have meant 23,000 dead "in one day."
What is the conflict between 2 Sam. 24:1 and 1 Chron. 21:1?
Did the Lord cause David to number Israel or did Satan? Both could have been involved because they both participated together in other matters throughout Scripture.
Who killed Goliath? (2 Sam. 21:19; 1 Sam. 17:50)
David could have had another name, Elhanan. There also could have been another giant in Gath who was "the brother" of Goliath (copyist omission), or even two Goliaths.
What is the conflict between 2 Sam. 24:9 and 1 Chron. 21:5? What is the resolution?
2 Sam. reports 800,000 people in Israel and 500,000 in Judah. 1 Chron. reports 1.1 million in Israel and 470,000 in Judah. The solution may be the 300,000 number mentioned in 1 Chron. 27 that was not recorded in 2 Sam 24. There's also a special 30,000 number figure in 2 Sam 6:1 that may have been excluded from 1 Chron. 21:5.
What is the conflict regarding David's choice of punishment in 2 Sam. 24:13 and 1 Chron. 21:12?
2 Sam. records David's punishment as seven years of famine, while 1 Chron. says three. Some translations of the Bible have record both as three. This is likely a copyist error. Inerrancy does not extend to the copies.
What is the conflict regarding David's property payment in 2 Sam. 24:24 and 1 Chron. 21:25?
2 Sam. says 50 shekels of silver while 1 Chron. says 600 shekels of gold. The 50 shekels of silver may have been for the threshing floor and oxen alone.
What is the conflict regarding the laver in 2 Chron. 4:2?
The dimensions don't work out mathematically unless you take the inner diameter minus about two handbreadths (verse 5), then multiply by pi to get the result.
What is the conflict regarding taking a staff in Matt. 10:9-10; Mark 6:8; and Luke 9:3?
"Mark records that Jesus allowed the disciples to take a staff while Matthew and Luke say he forbade it" (Ryrie, p. 113). The disciples may have been allowed to take a staff if they needed it to walk, but they were not to take or buy any extra, unneeded provision for their journey.
What is the trouble with the mustard seed in Matthew 13:32?
Jesus seems to have made a scientific error claiming that the mustard seed was the smallest of all seeds. But he may have been making a comparative, not absolute statement, as in "it was the smaller of all seeds," and also, the phrase "small as a grain of mustard seed" was a contemporary idom of the day.
What is the conflict regarding the blind men at Jericho in Matt. 20:29-34, Mark 10:46-52, and Luke 18:35-43?
Matthew recorded that Jesus healed two blind men while leaving Jericho, while the other gospel writers focused on one blind man as they were entering Jericho. Mark and Luke do not mention a specific number, so there may have been two blind men, but one stood out to them. Also, Jericho's old city and new city may have provided different perspectives of exiting one and entering the other.
What is the issue with Zechariah's father in Matt. 23:35 and 2 Chron. 24:20?
Matt. says that Zechariah the preist was the son of Berechiah, while 2 Chron. says the father was Jehoiada. "Son of" does not necessarily mean next of kin in the Bible, as in Jesus was the son of David. Jehoiada was likely Zechariah's grandfather, noted in Scripture for his fame.
Was the Old Testament quote from Zechariah or Jeremiah in Matt. 27:9-10?
In the Babylonian Talmud, Jeremiah was placed at the beginning of the Old Testament prophetic writings, so Matthew may simply be using his name to indicate the section of Scripture where the Zechairah passage came.
Why did Mark quote from both Malachi and Isaiah, but attribute the whole quote to Isaiah in Mark 1:2-3?
Mark may have had only the principal quote in mind, which was from Isaiah. The NKJV fixes this passage to read "written in the Prophets" instead of "written in Isaiah the Prophet."
What is the conflict with the record of Abiathar vs. Ahimelech in Mark 2:26?
Mark's reference to Abiathar being the high priest at the time David ate the tabernacle bread conflicts with the Old Testament record that Ahimelech was the high priest. The answer is that Abiathar was performing priestly duties and took the high priest position after Ahimelech was killed right around that period of time Mark mentioned.
What is the conflict with the death of Judas in Acts 1:8 vs. Matt. 27:5?
Acts records Judas falling headlong and bursting open while Matthew says he hanged himself. Both accounts are correct. Something happened to make Judas fall, or the Acts verse could be interpreted differently to mean that he swelled up in the noose and his guts burst.
What is the trouble with Stephen's speech in Acts 7:6?
Stephen records 400 years of Egyptian captivity, while Exodus 12:40 and Paul say 430 (Gal. 3:17). The difference is likely an approximation. Also, in Galatians, the 430 years may refer to the period from the end of the Patriarchal Age (Gen. 35) to the giving of the Law in Exo. 20.