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Usually in the centre of the cell, stores the cells hereditary material, or DNA and coordinates the cells activities. Found in animal and plant cells



Found in the cytoplasm it functions as a micro machine for making proteins. Found in animal and plant cells



Found in cytoplasm the powerhouse of the cell used for energy production in the cell. Present in animal and plant cells



Found in the cytoplasm next to the ER it's job is to sort and process proteins which are then released. Present in animal and plant cells


Rough ER

Found in the cytoplasm it's job is to assemble proteins. Present in animal and plant cells



Found only in plants cells their main role is to conduct photosynthesis



Found only in animal cells function is to digest excess or worn out organelles , food particles and engulfed viruses or bacteria



Found in cytoplasm provides support or rigidity. A storage area for nutrients and waste matter and can decompose complex molecules. Found in animal and plant cells


Cell wall

Only in plant cells provides the cell with both structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism


Cell membrane

In both protect the cell from its surroundings.


What is a prokaryotic cell?

are unicellular organisms that lack organelles or other internal membrane-bound structures . Therefore, they do not have a nucleus, but, instead, generally have a single chromosome


What is a eukaryotic cell?

A eukaryote is any organism whose cells have a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes. The type of living cells that form all organism in the animal kingdom


Differences between animal and plant cells

the main structural differences between plant and animal cells lie in a few additional structures found in plant cells. These structures include: chloroplasts, the cell wall, and vacuoles.


Uses and functions of enzymes

Most enzymes are made of a macromolecule called protein. Enzymes act as catalysts in reactions. Enzymes can be reused but each enzyme is specific to its substance.


Structure of enzymes

An enzyme works by binding a substrate at the active site. When the enzyme binds with the enzyme specific substrate it breaks the substrate down.


What is a substrate, product and reactant?

The substrate is the thing that reacts with the enzyme, they are enzyme specific.
The product is the thing that is created when the enzyme and the substrate react.
The reactant is the substrate



The division of cells. All the cells that divide themselves have a nucleus. Mitosis is when the chromosomes in a cell duplicate and then split, creating two cells instead of one. When the cells split it does not create 96 seperate chromosomes but instead 46 doubles



The division of sex cells. The gamete created has to be in the ovaries or testes to perform meiosis. The cells splits four time but the chromosome number only doubles once, leaving four cells with 23 chromosomes. These cells only have 23 because they then combine with the opposite sex cell to get 46 again


What is a mono hybrid cross + expected ratios

a breeding experiment between P generation (parental generation) organisms that differ in a single given trait. The P generation organisms are homozygous for the given trait, however each parent possesses different alleles for that particular trait. So if you breed green dominant snow peas and yellow recessive snow peas. Same gene but different allele



refers to a particular gene that has identical alleles on both homologous chromosomes. It is referred to by two capital letters (XX) for a dominant trait, and two lowercase letters (xx) for a recessive trait.



An allele can be dominant or recessive. The allele is different (Xx)


What is a genotype?

A genotype, represented by Xx or XX or xx is the actual genetic information carried by an individual


What is a phenotype?

The observable characteristics or traits of an individual


What is dominant?

The trait that is observed in the outward appearance of the individual


What is recessive?

The trait that remains hidden in a individual


What is sex linked inheritance? And Carriers?

Genes that are found on the chromosomes that also determine sex are call sex linked genes. A carrier is an individual that carries the gene for that thing but it does not affect them, but they can pass it on.


What are sex chromosomes?

All the eggs produced by a female will have one X chromosome. Half the males will have X and half will have Y. If a speed containing Y fertilises the egg this will create XY making a boy and if an X sperm fertilises it will create a girl with XX


DNA structure. Sequence and bases

DeoxyRibo nucleic acid. DNA is shaped like a rope ladder, with the uprights being alternating sugar, phosphate groups and the rungs are the bases. The four bases are Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine and they form complementary base pairs


What is genetic modification?

the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms


What is gene splicing and plasmids?

a post-transcriptional modification in which a single gene can code for multiple proteins. Gene Splicing is done in eukaryotes. It's an important source of protein diversity


What is genetic testing in terms of disease and paternity?

the study of a person's DNA in order to identify genetic differences or susceptibility to particular diseases or abnormalities. It can help identify certain diseases and see if you are the father


What is the equation for respiration?

C6H12O + 6O2 ----> 6CO2 + 6H2 + ATP

(Last three six's are big, all other numbers are small)


What is the equation for photosynthesis?

H2O + CO2 ----(sunlight + chlorophyll^)-----> C6H12O6 + O2


What are the reactants and products in respiration?

Oxygen and glucose are both reactants. ATP, carbon dioxide, and water are the products.


What are the reactants and products in photosynthesis?

carbon dioxide and water are used with light energy to produce glucose sugar and oxygen gas.


What does the mitochondria have to do with respiration?

The aerobic phases of cellular respiration in eukaryotes occur within organelles called mitochondria. These aerobic phases are the Krebs Cycle and the electron transport chain. The mitochondria is the only organelle that can perform respiration


What do the chloroplasts have to do with photosynthesis?

They reflect green light and absorb red and blue light most strongly. The chloroplasts can perform photosynthesis most efficiently


What is aerobic respiration?

Aerobic respiration is the process of producing cellular energy involving oxygen. Cells break down food in the mitochondria in a long, multistep process that produces roughly 36 ATP.


What is variation? Does it offer an advantage?

the occurrence of an organism in more than one distinct colour or form. It can offer an advantage but it can also be a negative thing


What is natural selection?

the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring


What is competition?

interaction between animal or plant species, or individual organisms, that are attempting to gain a share of a limited environmental resource. Selective agents act on a population


Define survival of the fittest

the continued existence of organisms which are best adapted to their environment, with the extinction of others, as a concept in the Darwinian theory of evolution.


Define evolution

Any change to the heritable traits in a population across generations. The process by which different kinds of living organism are believed to have developed from earlier forms during the history of the earth.


What are areas of science that prove evolution happens?

Comparative anatomy
Fossil record
DNA comparison