Exam Flashcards Preview

Intro to Psychology Final > Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam Deck (38):
1

"Will not remember" = za-kar'

- to cause to remember, remind
- to cause to be remembered, keep in remembrance
- to mention
- to record
- to make a memorial, make remembrance

2

4 New Trends

1) Over the last few decades there has been a shift from the amount of information retained to the pliability of memory
2) Memories are pliable. They change over time and can be implanted
3) Memory is fallible, quirky, and reconstructive in nature
4) Memory is compared to a theater rather than a movie

3

What are the 2 sub categories of the Explicit Memory type?

1) Episodic Memory (tied to certain episodes of your life)
2) Semantic Memory (facts and general knowledge that do not depend on recalling a particular time or situation)

4

What are the 2 sub categories of the Implicit Memory type?

1) Procedural Memory (how we remember to do things)
2) Priming (exposure to one stimulus influences a response to a subsequent stimulus, without conscious guidance or intention)

5

What are the 3 parts of memory formation?

- Encode: get information into memory
- Store: retain over time
- Retrieve: get information out of storage

6

Memory Formation Cycle

Event 🎂
⬇️
Sensory Register 🔬
⬇️
Sensory Memory 👁
⬇️
Short-Term Memory 🧠
⬇️
Long-Term Memory 👤

7

3 Types of Memory Retrieval

1) Recall
2) Recognize
3) Relearn

8

3 Levels of Encoding

1) Automatic Processing
2) Shallow Processing
3) Deep Processing

9

What are the 3 reasons we forget?

1) Failure to encode
2) Failure to retrieve
3) Storage decay

10

What is the one factor that effects our Nature?

Genetics

11

What are the 5 factors that effect our Nurture?

1) Prenatal Chemicals
2) Postnatal Chemicals
3) General Experiential Factors
4) Individual Experiential Factors
5) Traumatic Factors

12

What was Jean Piaget's theory?

He theorized that humans go through specific stages of cognitive development and intellectual progression.

13

What was Jean Piaget's question?

How does knowledge grow?

14

What is the 4 Stage Theory of Development?

- Sensorimotor Stage: Birth to 2
- Pre-operational Stage: 2-7
- Concrete Operational Stage: 7-12
- Formal Operational Stage: 12-Life

15

The primary emotions are the same for all people, regardless of nationality, gender, etc.

TRUE

16

What are the 6 Universal Primary Emotions?

-Anger
- Sadness
- Happiness
- Disgust
- Fear
- Surprise

17

Secondary emotions are felt after the first emotion is processed - a combination of emotions.

TRUE

18

Serenity + Interest =

Optimism

19

Joy + Trust =

Love

20

Trust + Fear =

Submission

21

Fear + Surprise =

Awe

22

Surprise + Sadness =

Disapproval

23

Sadness + Disgust =

Remorse

24

Disgust + Anger =

Contempt

25

Anticipation + Anger =

Aggressiveness

26

Self-Conscious Emotions:

- Lack facial expression
- Triggered only by mental reflection
- Develop in the 2nd or 3rd year of life
- Depend on self-awareness, knowing good/bad

27

Some Self-Conscious Emotions include:

- Guilt
- Shame
- Embarrassment
- Pride
- Envy
- Jealousy

28

What are the 3 Components of Emotions?

1) Physiological Arousal
2) Expressive Behavior
3) Conscious Experience

29

Common Sense says:

"I tremble because I'm afraid."

30

James-Lange says:

"I feel afraid because I tremble."

31

Cannon-Bard says:

"When my subconscious interprets something to be scary, I tremble and feel afraid."

32

Schacter (2 Factor) says:

"I label my trembling as fear because I appraise the situation as dangerous."

33

Two-Dimensional Model of Emotions

Any emotions you feel are expressed on a spectrum of valence and arousal.

34

Valence

Pleasant or positive vs. unpleasant or negative.

35

Arousal

Excited or active vs. not excited or inactive.

36

Sympathetic Division

Arousing

37

Parasympathetic Division

Calming

38

Why can stress and negative emotions be bad for our health?

- Lifestyle Factors
- Social Factors
- Biological Factors