Definitions Flashcards Preview

Intro to Psychology Final > Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Definitions Deck (36):
1

Psychology

Psyche = Soul
Logos = Word
Psychology = a word about the soul

2

Secular Psychology

The scientific study of the mind

3

Memory

Learning that has persisted over time - information that has been stored and, in many cases, can be recalled.

4

Mnemonics

Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

5

Developmental Psychology

The study of our physical, cognitive, social, and emotional changes throughout our whole lives - from prenatal to preteen to post-retirement

6

Maturation

The biological growth process that enables orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

7

Emotion

The mind and body's integrated response to a stimulus of some kind

8

Stress

The process by which we perceive and respond to certain events or stressors that we view as challenging or threatening

9

Schemas

How we categorize things

10

Self-Conscious Emotions

Emotions that relate to our sense of self and our consciousness of others reactions to us

11

Social Psych

The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to others

12

Attribution

The process of explaining events

13

Actor-Observer Effect

The tendency to attribute our own behavior to external, situation causes - but that of others to internal causes

14

Facial Feedback Hypothesis

Faces/bodies don't just show our emotions, they can influence our emotions as well

15

Attribution

The process of explaining events, or inferring their causes

16

Attribution Theory

The theory that we can explain someone's behavior by crediting either their stable, enduring traits (also known as their disposition) or the situation at hand

17

Fundamental Attribution Error

The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition

18

Explicit (Declarative) Memory

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare.

19

Implicit (Non-Declarative) Memory

Retention independent of conscious recollection

20

Iconic Memory

Perfect visual memory - last about 1/2 a second

21

Echoing Memory

Sensory memory of auditory stimuli - lasts 2-4 seconds

22

Physiological Arousal

Automatic physical response

23

Expressive Behavior

Body posture, gesture, facial expression

24

Conscious Experience

Subjective feelings, interpretation, perception, memories

25

Stressors

Catastrophes, significant life changes, everyday inconveniences

26

Goal

Understanding, explaining, and predicting social cognition and social behavior

27

Self-Serving Bias

The tendency to view positive outcomes as stemming from internal causes (our own effort or ability) but negative outcomes as stemming from external factors

28

Conformity

Describes how we adjust our behavior or thinking to follow the behavior or rules of the group we belong to

29

Normative Social Influence

The idea that we comply in order to fuel our need to be liked or belong

30

Compliance

Changing a behavior in response to a direct request

31

Obedience

Social influence by demand

32

Social Facilitation

Effects on performance stemming from the presence of others

33

Social Loafing

The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

34

Deindividualization

The loss of self-awareness and restraint that can occur in group situations

35

Group Polarization

The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group

36

Bystander Effect

The tendency to assume someone else will take the lead (go first) when in a group of people