Flashcards in EXAM Ch. 4 Deck (21):
a church ruling that excludes a person or region from participating in the sacraments
a practice in the medieval church whereby secular rulers chose the bishops for their territories thus usurping the right of the Pope to choose bishops
Latin word "to beg"; members of these religious orders take a vow of poverty and take on a willingness to beg or work for food
encompasses the theological and philosophical system developed by major Catholic thinkers, notably St. Thomas Aquinas
a buying and selling of church offices/ church condemns this practice
the teaching of the church that the substance of the bread and wine is changed into the substance of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ at the consecration of the Mass
passing on of church lands and benefits to children or relatives
exemplified the papacy's claim to temporal power when, in 1905, he called the First Crusade to help the beleaguered Eastern Empire and to rescue the Holy Land from the Muslims
Pope Urban II
considered the last father of the church, crusading reformer, brilliant organizer, eloquent speaker, and spiritual master of his day; apart of the Cistercians
St. Bernard Clairvaux
founded the Order of Friar Minors, popularly known as the Franciscans
St. Francis of Assisi
left her affluent family to found an order of religious women known as the Poor Clares
St. Clare of Assisi
a time of great achievement in the Middle Ages when the church and western society were one; larger territory when most people are Christian
Which crusade did the Christians win?
After death, his sons and grandsons fought over the empire. Eventually it was broken into three and the empire fell apart.
Describe the early universities.
-they grew out of the cathedral schools that were established by the bishops to train priests
-students entered at 14/15 years old, and took 6 years of liberal arts studies before entering a bachelor's degree
What is a positive effect from the crusades?
it stimulated trade and weakened the feudal system
What was a negative effect of the crusade?
the hope for reconciliation of the eastern and western churches was lost
Why did Charlemagne's empire break?
His sons and grandsons fought over the empire; got broken into France, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe by the Treaty of Verdun
What kinds of abuses occurred in the early church?
Feudalism caused divide between nobility, clergy, and sects who farmed the land
Lay investiture, simony, nepotism
Many priests married and took on mistresses
What did Pope Innocent II do to assert church power and advance the papacy?
1. Excommunication and interdict
2. Political alliances
4. Canon law and taxation
5. Ecumenical council- Fourth Lateran Council