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Flashcards in Exam I Deck (33)
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1

Guilds

  • Rivalry between artist, merchants, cities and craftsmen
  • Emergence of guils (qualitiy control)
  • Supervised education of young artist
  • Provided competition for young artist
  • Entrance into a guild reuired the creation of a MASTERPIECE
  • Paintors belong to the Guild of Doctors because they mixed their own paints
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2

Fourteenth Century Europe Eco

  • Population growth, but not enough food
  • Bad harvest so Europe was in famine
  • There was also conflict between France and England (Hundred Years War)
  • Black Death- Bubonic plague, lost about 40% of european population
  • Basic societal structures fell
  • Despite the famine, Black Death, and the Hundred Years War, there was economic growth
  • Wealth promoted art patronage

3

Usury

  • To charge interest on loaned money (a sin)
  • In the Scrovegni situation he had inherited this wealth from his father's sinful moneymaking ways
  • Scrovegni commisioned Giotto's to paint frescos in the Scrovegni (Arena) Chapel as a way to show God he was sorry
  • Facial features of angels are generic, prophets are individualized, likely to be portraits
  • Grisaille
  • Human emotion and symbolism
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4

Florentine vs. Sienese Painting

  • Rivals
  • Sienese-Emphasis on DECORATION
    • Duccio di Buoninsegna
    • Jewel-like colors
    • Elegant posed figures
  • Florentino- Emphasis on EMOTION
    • Maesta Altarpiece-Mary and Child are focal point (larger and on center)
    • Maniera greca- Greek style
    • Giotto v 

5

Illuminated Manuscripts

  • Book of Hours, used for private prayer
  • Worn like jewelry by the wealthy
  • Book of Hours of Jeanne D'Everoux
    • Prays for a boy
    • Contrapasto- curved relaxed posture
  • Architectural frames around scenes
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6

English Embroidery

  • (Opus Aglicanum)
  • English were wellknown for needle work
  • Lots of detail
  • Life of the Virgin
    • Red velvet with silk (expensive materials)
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7

Decorated Style of Architecture

  • Exeter Cathedral (England)
  • Decorative Syle- derived from gothic
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8

Andachtsbilder and Vesperbild

  • Vesper- evening prayer
  • Vesperbild - Pieta - Mary holding Christ
  • Andachtsbilder- German religious works, depict harsh reality
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9

Renaissance and Jules Michelet

  • Rebirth
  • Began in Italy (possibly in Florence) but developed in other parts of Europe as well
  • Wasn't known as the Renaissance until Michelet called it that in 1855

10

Characteristic of the Nothernern Renaisance

  • Observe and record natural world
    • Birds and animals, lots of detail
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11

International Gothic Style and 'Realism of Particulars'

  • International Gothic Style is known as Realism of Particulars
  • Excesive detail
  • Shows debth
  • Bright colors and gold leaf
  • Mini architecture
  • Unicorn Found at the Fountain, from the Hunt of the Unicorn Tapestry Series
    • Lots of floral
    • Used as insulation, portable
    • Expensive, expression of owners wealth 
    • Dificult and complex to make (curves and shadows)
    • Crowded and busy compositions
    • Symbolism- unicorn can only be caught by virgin
      • Unicorn- love
      • Lion- Faith, mercy, courage
      • Stag- Ressurection, shags fall off and regrow
      • Rabbit- Fertility
      • Dogs- Loyalty, fidelity
      • Plant and Fruit- Fertility
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12

Annunciation, Visitation, Presentation in the Temple, Flight into Egypt

12

13

Flemish Tapestries

pricy

14

The Flemish School

  • Oil was preffered medium, slow to dry transparent when applied in thin layers
  • Flemish panels are meant to be looked as windows into a scene
  • Evidence of 'Realism of Particulars'
  • Attention to detail, architecture, symbolism, and drapery
  • Rise of the middle class, becoming patrons
  • Merode Altarpiece
    • Typical Flemish home
    • Symbolism- ceramic vessel with lilies-purity, virginity
    • Waterpot in back- vessel carrying Christ
    • Candle- God's divinity
    • Small floating Christ
    • Sitting on footrest- obidience to God
  • Double Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife
    • Her face is idealized, his isn't
    • May have been pregnant? Just married? Memorial to his first wife?
    • Highly espensive fabrics and carpets, wealthy
    • Mirror- all seeing eye of God
    • Dog- fidelity
    • Fruit tree- fertility
    • Shoes- Shes a homemaker, hes a bread winner
  • Ghent Altarpiece (Second Generation Artist)
    • Scene of ANNUNCIATION
    • Mary's words are upsidedown
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15

'Flamboyant' Architecture

goth

16

Printmaking in Northern Europe

  • Larger quantities
  • Less expensive
  • Paper was more accesible
  • Made out of woodblocks, by woodworkers
  • Could be made in parchment or paper
  • German or latin
  • In color or black and white
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17

Double Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and HIs Wife

Van Eyke

1434

 

18

Annunciaton, Visitation, Presentation in the temple, Flight into Egypt 

Melchior Broederlam

1400

19

Well of Moses 

Claus Slutter

1400

20

February: LIfe in the Country, Tres Riches Heures

Paul Herman and Jean Limbourg

1400

21

January duke of berry at Table, Tres Riches Heurx

Paul Herman, Jean Limbourg

1400

22

Unicorn is Found at the Fountain: From the Hunt of the Unicorn

Tapestry Series

1500

23

Merode Altarpiece 

Triptych of the Annuciation

Robert Campin

1400

24

Man in a Red Turban

Van Eyck

1400

 

25

Ghent Altarpiece (Closed)

Annunciation with Donars

Jean and Hubbert Van Eyck

1400

26

Ghent Altarpiece (Open)

Adoration of the Mystic Lamb

Jean and Hubbert Van Eyck

1400

27

Saint Luke Drawing the Virgin and Child

Roger Van Der Weyden

1400

 

28

Portinari Altarpiece

Hugo Van der Goes

1500

29

Etienne Chevalier St Stephen and Virgin and Child

Jean Foquet

1450

30

Church of St Maclau

Pierre Robin

1500