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Flashcards in Exam I Deck (46):

Provide a definition for the term “biomedical engineering"

The use of engineering principles/techniques for understanding biological systems, advance the practice of medicine and to develop therapeutic technologies and devices.


List the various subspecialties of biomedical engineering?

Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Biomedical Imaging, Biophysics, Bioinformatics & Computational Biology, Bioinstrumentation


What are three common entry level jobs for biomedical engineers with a BS degree? Which of the three sounds most interesting to you?

RD Test Engineer, Quality Engineer I, Manufacturing Engineer I, Regulatory Affairs Associate


What is meant by the term “tissue engineering?

(pg 474) Engineered skin, polymer scaffolds for tissue regeneration. Develop new approaches to repair tissues and develop replacements for them.


What is meant by the term “Personalized Medicine?

Tailoring specific medicine for an individual


How are advances in imaging driving improved healthcare?

Non-invasive surgery, early detection and treatment of disease,


What regions of the world have a low life expectancy and how does it differ from that found in the developed world?

Middle of Africa – stable gov’t, lack of available resources, cleanliness


What are the leading causes of death and disability around the world?

Ischeamic Heart Disease, Stroke, Cancer, Respiratory Disease & Infection


**List the most common elements found in the human body and the four classes of biopolymers that they comprise.

-Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen - Lipids, Polysaccharides, Nucleic Acids, Proteins


**Draw and label a schematic diagram representing the important systems that are vital to human life.

Box: skin(integumentary system), musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, renal system, immune system, reproductive system.

Inner box: circulatory system around nervous & endocrine system, digestive system


List the various subcompartments where water is distributed in the human body and their approximate percentage of total body water.

20% Extracellular fluid: Interstitial fluid and Intravascular fluid
40% Intracellular fluid
40% not H20


Using a common set of small molecules as examples explain the difference between polar and non-polar molecules.

Water molecule (polar) with charge, unequal sharing of electrons; methane nonpolar molecule


What is meant by the term “polymer”.

-many parts = many macromolecules


List the four major types of biological polymers (biopolymers).

-Lipids, Polysaccharides, Nucleic Acids, Proteins


Describe what is meant by the term “condensation reaction” and provide an example.

Water is made, leaves as a bond forms. Ex amino acids coming together


What is a polysaccharide?

-Carbohydrate made of monosaccharides bonded by glycosidic bonds.


What is the general chemical structure of a lipid molecule?

-Hydrophilic Head with a hydrophobic tail of fatty acid chain


What molecules are found in all cell membranes and how are they organized, that is, how does one know which side of the molecule faces the extracellular fluid (ECF)?

Phospholipids, bilayer. Hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail


Describe two roles of cell membranes

Protection, shape/form organization compartments, transport/regulation, gradient barrier


**Why is Ph important in biological processes involving protein function?

Drives chemical rxns, denatures proteins leads to loss of protein function and also changes structure


**Describe how DNA is packaged in the nucleus of somatic cells.

DNA wrapped around histones, then histones wrapped around into chromatin, then into loops, then condensed chromatin into chromosome structure.


What is meant by a Karyotype and how is it used in medicine?

Analysis of # of structure of chromosomes, reveal genetic diseases


How is a germ cell different from a somatic cell?

Germ cell is reproductive cell, somatic all other cells body cells


What is meant by the term “genome”?

Complete set of DNA


Provide three differences between RNA and DNA.

The bases, DNA has ATCG, RNA has AUCG; double helix vs single strand; different sugars ribose vs deoxyribose.


Describe the basic structure of a nucleotide.

Phosphate group and a sugar with base


Describe what is meant by the term “base pairing” and describe the base pairing rules for DNA and RNA.

A to T, vs A to U


Draw a simple schematic diagram of the DNA molecule.

Double helix, A to T and G to C


What is meant by the term DNA replication and why is it important in biological systems?

Reproduction, dna synthesis = healing


Provide a diagram of the DNA replication machinery.

Helicase, polymerase, etc lagging/leading strand


***Provide a diagram that describes the central dogma of gene transcription.

Dna -> transcription -> RNA -> translation -> Protein


What is meant by the term “RNA processing”.

Pull out introns, put back into exons


***Provide a diagram that outlines the steps involved in protein production starting from DNA. Be sure to place each step in the appropriate compartment of the cell.

Draw DNA, mRNA with Intron, then splice with Exon (no introns), cap added and tail, mRNA in cytosol with ribosome. tRNA out in cytosol with amino acid that is attached to ribosome with growing polypeptide chain. Nucleus and cytosol


What is a transcription factor?

Proteins that control which genes are turned on or off in the genome. What RNA’s to make.


Define Recombinant DNA technology.

Combining DNA from 2 different organisms together


Explain how a restriction enzyme is used.

Cuts open the plasmid, so we can insert our DNA sequence. it is a bacterial defense mechanism


What is a plasmid and how is it used to clone DNA?

Circular piece of DNA in prokaryotes and mitochondria, non chromosomal DNA; small we can put in our own DNA


Describe one method for inserting DNA into a cell (the cell can be either a prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell).

Gene gun, transformation/transfection to punch holes into the membrane


Define polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and list 2 applications for this technique.

Amplifying/replicating a piece of DNA by separating it through heat, then bind, then heat, repeat.
-use for detecting HIV, in forensics, prenatal diagnosis


How are small interfering RNAs (SiRNA) used to block gene expression?

Marks RNA, to interfere with the central dogma diagram. Blocks pathways.


What is the difference between the term “genome” and the term “proteome”?

Genome all genes, no change over time. Proteome not all, protein expression within given cell is dynamic


Describe the 4 levels of protein structure.

Primary – amino acid chain, secondary – shapes helix and beta sheet, tertiary – polymer strand and quaternary – final protein piece


What methods can scientist use to denature proteins?

Change pH, temperature, salt concentration, add a foreign body biomaterial


**List four different functions of proteins in living cells.

Structure, enzymes, communication, transport


What is meant by the term “post translational modification” of proteins?

After protein is translated through central dogma… more modifications, add sugars or phosphate etc to change protein into a final form.


Provide a diagram to describe the mechanism for enzyme action from the point of view of ‘activation energy’.

Activation energy graph, diagram circle changing shape
-lowers AE for chemical rxn to occur