Flashcards in Exam I Deck (288):
What is microbiology
the study of microscopic organisms
________ are the foundation for all life on earth.
What are Robert Hooke and Anotony Von Leeuwenhoek credited with discovering?
What is spontaneous generation? Who disproved this? What was the experiment?
-organisms can emerge from inanimate objects. -Francesco Redi
-An uncovered jar with meat went bad. When covered, it didn't. This proved eggs from flies was causing the meat to go bad, not spontaneous generation on the meat.
How did Louis Pasteur disprove spontaneous generation?
Sterilized broth. It remained sterile when air could not continue through the bottleneck to the broth. When the bottleneck was tipped and air entered, microorganisms contaminated it, proving microorganisms were in the air.
True or False: Louis Pasteur was the first to disprove spontaneous generation.
False, it was Francesco Redi
Why was Pasteur's work hard to replicate? Who explained what was happening and who officially discovered endospores?
-Microorganisms can form endospores, so using heat to sterilize the broth did not always kill all microorganisms present
-Tyndall discovered that microorganisms can be heat resistant
-Cohn discovered endospores
What is the germ theory? Who proposed it and who solidified it?
-The theory that microscopic organisms are causative agents in disease
-Jakob Henle proposed it
-Robert Koch solidified it
What are pathogens?
Microorganisms that cause disease
What are the characteristic communities of microorganisms that colonize a particular location, such as humans?
The Host-Microbe Microbiota
What does the host-microbe microbiota do?
-"good" microorganisms that help in digestion and immunity
-Some are pathogens
What are the four vital roles of microbes in the world?
1. Nitrogen Fixation
2. Carbon Fixation
3. Oxygen and photosynthesis
How do we as humans use microbes?
-Medically as pathogens
-Industry such as in foods and biofuels
What are the three domains of life?
Bacteria and archaea are _________. Do they have a nucleus?
-No true nucleus
Eukaryotes include what five things?
What kind of organism does this describe?:
Photosynthetic eukaryote, single-celled and multicellular, different shapes and sizes, usually found near the surface of aquatic environments
What kind of organism does this describe?:
Single-celled or multicellular, gain energy from degrading organic materials, primarily found on land, eukaryotic
What kind of organism does this describe?:
Do not have a cell wall, ingest organic food sources, motile, both aquatic and terrestrial, eukaryotic
Single-cell fungi are ______. Multicellular fungi are ______.
Viruses, viroids, and prions are _________.
What kind of organism does this describe?:
metabolically inactive outside of the host, nucleic acid packaged in a protein coat, no ribosomes
What kind of organism does this describe?:
Only a short piece of RNA, replicate inside the host
What kind of organism does this describe?:
Infectious proteins that cause neurodegenerative diseases, misfolded versions of normal proteins, cause protein aggregates and fibrils that build up in the cell
In E. Coli. K12, Escherichia is the ___________, Coli is the _________, and K12 is the ________.
In general, eukaryotic cells are ________ than prokaryotic cells, however there are some exceptions.
How was Koch able to solidify germ theory?
He developed lab techniques such as a solid media to obtain pure cultures of microbes
Bacteria and archaea are __________ prokaryotes.
What distinguishes bacteria from archaea?
archaea do not have peptidoglycan in their cell wall
Do prokaryotes have DNA or RNA? Where is it contained?
-RNA contained in a nucleoid
What are three parameters of microscopy to consider?
______ ______ is when visible light passes through a series of lenses to produce a magnified image
What are three types of light microscopy?
3. Phase Contrast
______ ______ is the most common form of light microscopy that illuminates the field evenly.
_______ ______ is a form of light microscopy that has light directed at an angle to make a bright specimen and dark background
______ ______ is a form of light microscopy that increases contrast by amplifying differences in refractive index.
The phase contrast microscope increases _______.
What are three forms of 3D techniques of light microscopy?
1. Differential Interference Contrast (DIC)
2. Scanning Laser
_______ _______ _______ is a form of 3D light microscopy in which two light beams pass through the specimen and recombine, making a 3D effect
Differential Interference Contrast (DIC)
Which form of light microscopy has a laser beam that scans across successive planes of a specimen, and then a computer creates an image that is 3D and has sectional views?
Scanning Laser microscopes produce an image that is _____ and has ______ ______
__________ microscopes stain specimens or tag molecules with a fluorescent dye, and then expose them to UV light.
A ______ is used in fluorescence microscopy and is something that preferentially binds to a specific cell or cell part.
Fluorescence microscopy includes _______ ______.
In _______ Microscopy, electron beams are used in place of light, and can clearly magnify images 100,00X. What are the three types?
3. Atomic force
True or False: Electron microscopy can not be used to observe living cells.
What is an advantage of electron microscopy?
It can be used to observe incredibly small things, sch as viruses, which are smaller than bacteria
What are the shapes of each of these morphology categories?
-Short, curved rod
-Curved rod long enough to form spirals
-long, spiral shaped
What is the advantage to amorphic shaped bacteria?
-Increase the surface area:volume ratio so that they can absorb more nutrients
What do groupings of cells depend on?
The plane in which they divide
What plain to chain, packet, and cluster cell groupings divide on?
Packet: parallel and perpendicular
Prokaryotes have a _____ ____ membrane. What does this mean?
-Only certain things pass through based on size and polarity
What passes through a selectively permeable membrane?
-Gases and small hydrophobic molecules pass easily
-Water passes by aquaporins
-Large/hydrophilic molecules doe not pass through
What do aquaporins do? Are they active or passive?
-Facilitate the transport of water
_______ transport goes with the concentration gradient. _______ transport goes against the concentration gradient.
In a hypotonic solution, where does water flow?
-Into the cell
In a hypertonic solution, where does water flow?
-Out of the cell
What are two types of passive transport?
1. Simple diffusion
2. Facilitated diffusion
What kind of passive transport is rarely seen in bacteria?
Active transporters need what?
What are three kinds of active transporters? What kind of energy do they use?
1. cotransporters --> proton motive force
2. ABC transporters --> ATP
3. Group Translocation --> Chemical energy
Which is more important for bacteria: Passive or Active transport?
_______ ______ _____ is an electrochemical gradient that provides energy to power things such as transport systems, ATP synthesis, and motility
Proton Motive Force
_______ _____ is a transport that chemically alters the substance as it is transported across the membrane. The molecule is no longer transported out.
_________ is a type of transport that is directed by a specific amino acid tag, called a signal sequence, that tells the cell that the molecule needs to go to the membrane.
________ is glycan chains linked to peptide chains in the cell wall and is unique to bacteria.
Peptidoglycan is made up of _________.
True or false: bacteria and archaea have peptidoglycan.
Falso, only bacteria
What are three properties of gram positive bacteria?
1. Thick peptidoglycan layer
2. Techoic acid
3. Gel-like between the peptidoglycan and membrane
What are three properties of gram negative bacteria?
1. Thin peptidoglycan layer
2. Outer membrane with LPS and porin proteins
3. Periplasm space between the inner and outer membranes
What are three properties of LPS?
1. Anchored to lipid A
3. O antigen that is variable
How does penicllin affect bacteria? Which bacteria are more susceptible?
-Inhibits cell wall synthesis by preventing glycan chain crosslinking
-Gram positive is more susceptible (no outer membrane)
How does lysozyme affect bacteria? Which bacteria are more susceptible?
-Breaks down the linkages in the glycan chain
-Gram positive is more susceptible (no outer membrane)
________ staining distinguishes between two groups of bacteria
What colors do gram positive and gram negative bacteria stain?
-Gram positive: purple
-Gram negative: Pink
Gram stain is a type of ________ stain.
Why do gram positive cells remain purple after decolorization?
The thick peptidoglycan layer holds the stain in
What type of staining is used for cells that can't readily take up dyes? Give an example of this type of cell.
-Mycobacterium have a waxy cell wallthat doesnt take up the stain
What color are acid-fast cells? What color are non acid-fast cells?
Acid-fast staining is a type of ________ stain.
What is an example of an organism that lacks a cell wall and cannot be stained?
What are three characteristics of archaea cell walls?
1. No peptidoglycan
2. Single membrane
3. S-layers made of sheets of protein or glycoprotein
What are the cells wall of algae composed of?
Polysaccharides such as cellulose, pectin, or silica
What are the cell walls of fungi composed of?
polysaccharides such as chitin and glycoproteins
True or false: Protists have a cell wall.
Capsules and slime layers are __________ structures.
What are two structures that are gel-like layers located outside the cell wall of bacteria?
Capsules and slime layers
What do capsules and slime layers do?
used for attachment, protection, and to evade host defenses
Capsules and slime layers are made of _________. ____ are distinct and gelatinous, and ___________ are diffuse and irregular?
_________ are long protein structures used in most prokaryotic mobility.
How do flagella move in bacteria? In eukaryotes?
They spin like propellers, they are more whip-like
Where are peritrichous flagella located? Where are polar flagella located?
-All around the cell
-At the ends
What powers flagella in prokaryotes? In eukaryotes?
Proton motive force in prokaryotes, ATP in eukaryotes
Where are flagella located in prokaryotes? In eukaryotes?
Under the plasma membrane, outside the membrane
Spirochetes have _________ under their outer membrane allowing them to move very fast.
What is chemotaxis?
The movement of bacteria toward or away from a chemical in their environment that they sense and respond to.
Bacteria move through a series of _____ and _____.
Runs and tumbles
______ are shorter and thinner than flagella, but are similar in structure
The _____ _____ is used by bacteria for conjugation.
________ are pili that allow cells to attach to surfaces.
______ are found in the nucleoid and contain single, circular dsDNA that is tightly packed and supercoiled.
_________ are smaller, singular, circular dsDNA molecules that are non-essential but can contain beneficial genes.
Plasmids participate in ________ gene transfer.
______ are the site of protein synthesis.
The _______ is involved in cell division and shape.
________ ______ accumulate and store large polymers or other nutrients
What are structures that are only found in aquatic bacteria to help with buoyancy and are controlled density?
_______ are a unique type of dormant cell produced by some bacteria.
A growing, dividing cell is a ______ cell. ______ is the process of becoming an endospore.
What are endospores resistant to? What cues their formation?
-Heat, chemicals, UV radiation
What are three types of special staining techniques for cell structure?
1. Capsule Stain
2. Endospore Stain
3. Flagella Stain
Why are lysozymes not effective against mycoplasma?
They don't have a cell wall for lysozymes to act on
Who created methods for cultivating bacteria?
Where are prokaryotes found?
How do bacterial cells divide?
What is generation time?
The time it takes for a population to double in number
What is the formula for generation time?
Nt = N0 X 2^n
Nt = number of cells in the population
N0 = original number of cells
n = number of doublings
Bacteria undergo _______ growth.
What are the five stages of the bacterial growth curve?
1. Lag phase
2. Log/Exponential Phase
3. Stationary Phase
4. Death Phase
5. Phase of prolonged decline
In what stages of bacterial growth are primary and secondary metabolites made?
Primary are made in the log/exponential phase, and secondary are made in the stationary phase
Where is the doubling time measured on the bacterial growth curve?
In the log/exponential phase
_______ _______ in mixed microbial communities are growth of a species otherwise unable to survive. The metabolic waste of one is a nutrient for another.
_______ _______ in mixed microbial communities are when they compete for nutrients and synthesize toxic compounds to inhibit competitors.
What is quorum sensing?
In biofilms, it is a system of stimuli and response in relation to population density to tightly regulate secretions
True or False: biofilms make bacteria more susceptible to disinfectants
False, they are less susceptible
What are extracellular polymeric substances?
In a biofilm, bacteria attach to a surface and release polysaccharides and DNA to which other bacteria can attach and grow. This mesh-like substance is the EPS.
A population descended from a single cell and is separated from other species or strains is a _______ ________.
In order to be a pure culture, the colony must have grown from what?
A single cell
What is a petri dish and agar?
A petri dish allows air and excludes contaminants. It contains agar that is solid and can be sterilized.
Why is agar a good medium to grow bacteria?
It can be sterilized, is solid, and few microbes can degrade it
What is a colony of bacteria? How many cells are in a colony?
-A visible population
-About 1 million cells
What phase of growth are cells at the edge of a colony in? At the center?
_______ _______ ______ can be used to isolate a single bacteria and obtain a pure culture in the lab.
What are stock cultures?
A pure culture that is freeze-dried and stored for later inoculation
What two things categorize microbial species?
2. Source of energy and carbon
List the temperature categories of microbes from coldest to hottest.
What are four environmental factors that affect microbial growth?
2. Atmosphere (oxygen content)
4. Water Content (salt concentration)
List the pH categories of microbes from most acidic to most basic.
__________ are organisms that thrive in conditions that would kill most other organisms. They are most often archaea.
Microbes that can grow in high-salt concentrations are _______. Microbes that require high levels of salt are __________.
_________ ________ grow only when oxygen is available.
________ _______ grow best when oxygen is available, but can grow without it.
________ ________ cannot grow when oxygen is present
___________ grow only if small amounts of oxygen are present
________ ________ grow equally well with or without oxygen.
ROS is produced as a by-product of _____ respiration. What does this do?
-damages DNA, proteins, and membranes
What is one nutrient that all microbes and organisms need?
What does carbon fixation do?
Converts inorganic carbon dioxide to useful organic forms of carbon
Photoautotrophs get their energy source from _____ and their carbon source from _______.
Photoheterotrphs get their energy from ______ and their carbon from ______.
Chemolithoautotrophs get their energy from _______and their carbon from ______.
-Chemoorganoheterotrophs get their energy from ______ and their carbon from _______.
Phototrophs harvest energy from________, while chemotrophs harvest energy from ________.
Which domain of life are chemolithoautotrophs unique to?
______ _____contains nutrient rich ingredients like meat juices and digested protein. The exact chemical compositions are variable.
_______ ______ media contains precise amounts of pure chemicals.
_______ _______ media inhibits growth of certain species to make isolation of one species easier. Give an example of this type of agar.
______ media changes certain species in a recognizable way.
MacConkey agar is both a _____ and _____ media.
What has to be used in the lab to satisfy atmospheric conditions of microbes?
-special containers and chambers
What does enrichment of a medium do?
conditions favor the growth of one species over another to help narrow down a species if it isn't present in high numbers in the mixed cultures
What kind of cells are counted in direct cell counts?
all cells, living and dead
When measuring biomass, what is turbidity proportional to?
The concentration of cells
What do visible cell counts measure? How are they counted?
-Only live/dividing cells
-poured on a plate and counted
______ ______ is a method for detecting and measuring growth that is for liquid culture with relatively few cells. The cells are concentrated before being moved to a plate.
what cell products can be measured for detecting growth? What does each measure?
-Acid and gas production
-measures dividing cells
_________ is the total of all chemical reactions in the cell
__________ breaks things down. What happens in these reactions?
-energy is released, a source of reducing power is made, and precursors for biosynthesis are made
__________ builds things in the cell. What happens in these reactions?
-Energy is consumed, reducing power is consumed, complex organic molecules are made from simpler ones
Energy is the capacity to do ______.
What are the two types of energy? Describe them.
Potential (stored energy)
Kinetic (energy of movement)
The most common energy currency in the cell is _______.
What is free energy?
Energy available to do work
What types of work does a cell need to do?
Chemical, transport, and mechanical work
In ______ reactions, the reactants have more free energy and energy is released.
In _________ reactions, products have more free energy and energy must be used.
While ATP is a common energy currency of the cell, ________ is an acceptor of free energy.
What are three ways energy is transferred to ATP? Give examples of each.
1. Substrate-level phosphorylation (exergonic reactions)
2. Oxidative Phosphorylation (ETC, proton motive force, ATP synthase)
3.Photophosphorylation (light energy used to create a proton motive force)
Substrate level phosphorylation reactions are _______, in which the phosphate comes from the ________.
A substance that loses electrons is _______, while a substance that gains electrons is ________.
What does reducing power result in?
Why do cells use multiple steps when degrading or synthesizing reactions?
-Slowly release ATP
-Multiple places that regulation can occur
Enzymes are biological ________ that do what to reactions?
True or False: Enzymes alter the free energy of a reaction.
Name three properties of enzymes
1. They lower the activation energy
2. They are highly specific for their substrate
3. They are not used up in a reaction
What are cofactors?
Non-protein molecules such as magnesium or FAD that assist in some enzyme's activities
What happens in allosteric regulation?
A regulatory molecule binds to an enzyme at a place other than the active site. This distorts the enzyme shape, which can prevent or enhance the substrate from binding
What is feedback inhibition?
The end product of a pathway binds to an upstream enzyme and inhibits it
What happens in non-competitive inhibition? Competitive inhibition?
-Inhibitor binds to a site other than the active site
-Inhibitor binds to the active site
Non-competitive inhibition is a type of ________ inhibition.
Energy _______ is critical for living cells.
What is ATP used to couple?
-Exergonic and endergonic reactions through substrate level phosphorylation
What environmental factors affect enzyme activity?
pH, temperature, salt concentration
FAD, NAD, and NADP are ______ ______ that are useful for carrying electrons from one pathway to another.
What two things do cells need to do?
1. Harvest energy
2. Build new cell material
Electron carriers have _____ _____ (they can reduce other molecules)
________ is a starting point for all cellular components.
Glucose is fully oxidized to what?
The oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide includes what four processes?
3. Transition Step
4. TCA cycle
True or False: If oxygen is not present, glycolysis will not occur.
What are the inputs of glycolysis?
What are the net outputs of glycolysis?
- 2 NADH
- 2 Pyruvate
What are the start and end products of glycolysis?
True or False: Heterotrophs, but not autotrophs, rely on glycolysis.
False, both do
Steps 1-5 of glycolysis are the _____ ____ phase, while steps 6-10 are the ______ phase.
In glycolysis, ATP and ADP transfer phosphoryl groups via what mechanism?
Substrate level phosphorylation
What are the inputs and outputs of PPP?
Outputs: NADPH, precursor metabolites, G3P that can feed back into glycolysis
The primary role to run PPP is what?
To make essential precursor metabolites for anabolism
What are the inputs and outputs of the TCA cycle?
Inputs: 2 acetyl-CoA
Outputs: 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP, 4 CO2, precursor metabolites
What are the inputs an outputs of the transition step?
Inputs: 2 pyruvate
Outputs: 2 NADH, 2 Acetyl-CoA, 2 CO2
In the transition step, pyruvate is converted to what?
When is glucose fully oxidized?
At the end of the TCA cycle
In eukaryotes, where does central catabolism take place?
Glycolysis, the transition step, and fermentation are all in the cytoplasm. The TCA cycle takes place in the mitochondrial membrane. Respiration takes place in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
In prokaryotes, where does central catabolism take place?
Glycolysis, the transition step, the TCA cycle, and fermentation all take place in the cytoplasm. Respiration takes place in the cytoplasmic membrane.
In the energy investment phase of glycolysis in prokaryotes, where does the phosphate come from?
-The first phosphate is added via group translocation into the cell
-The second phosphate is added from ATP via substrate level phosphorylation
What step of central metabolism generates the most reducing power?
True or False: Fermentation is a type of anaerobic respiration
The oxidation of glucose is _______ _______. The transfer of electrons to a terminal electron acceptor is______ and _______.
-Respiration and fermentation
________ is the partial oxidation of sugars that can occur without oxygen.
_______ respiration uses oxygen as the final electron acceptor. _______ respiration uses something other than oxygen as the final acceptor. Which is more efficient?
What does the chemiosmotic theory say?
The electron transport chain generates a proton motive force that drives the synthesis of ATP by ATP synthase
In prokaryotes and eukaryotes, where to respiration happen?
Prokaryotes- cytoplasmic membrane
eukaryotes- inner mitochondrial membrane
In respiration, what is electron energy gradually being released coupled to? What is the energy transferred to?
-coupled to pumping of protons
-transfers energy to an electrochemical gradient used to synthesize ATP
In the electron transport chain, electron carriers pass electrons to each other and move protons across the membrane. What does this generate?
A proton motive force
How many complexes are there in the electron transport chain of eukaryotes? What molecules pass electrons between the complexes?
-Ubiquinone and cytochrome C
True or False: In the electron transport chain, only one enzme is needed to accept electrons from both NADH and FADH2.
False, a specific enzyme is needed for each carrier
Compared to the ETC of eukaryotes, what structures do prokaryotes not have?
Complex III and cytochrome C
Which would you expect to generate more ATP in the electron transport chain: NADH or FADH2? Why?
NADH. It enters the chain earlier and the electrons start at a higher energy and can release more energy
True or False: Prokaryotes can harvest electron energy from sources other than NADH and FADH2, such as inorganic sources like H2S.
True or False: Prokaryotes can only have one kind of electron carrier in each species.
False, there can be several different ones
Prokaryote respiration structures/enzymes/electron carriers are very _____.
What are the advantages and disadvantages to anaerobic respiration?
Advantage: can respire and grow in environments without oxygen
Disadvantage: Harvests less energy
Why does anaerobic respiration harvest less energy?
Inorganic terminal electron acceptors have lower affinities for electrons
True or False: Chemolithotrophs produce more energy than chemoorganotrophs.
False, chemoorganotrophs use glucose, which is more likely to give up electrons
ATP synthase is powered by what to produce ATP? What is this process termed?
-Proton Motive Force
In addition to oxidative phosphorylation, what do prokaryotes use the proton motive force to power?
What is the theoretical energy yield maximum in prokaryotes? Why does this not hold true for all prokaryotes?
-They have diverse pathways and enzymes, and can utilize fermentation or respire aerobically or anaerobically
How much ATP total is produced from glycolysis, the transition step, and TCA cycle, including the ATP made after electron carriers go through respiration?
Glycolysis: 8 ATP (2 OP and 2 NADH = 6ATP)
Transition: 6 ATP (2 NADH = 6 ATP)
TCA: 24 ATP (2 OP, 6 NADH = 18 ATP, 2 FADH = 4 ATP)
How much ATP is made through substrate level phosphorylation in glycolysis, transition step, TCA, and respiration?
What is fermentation and what organisms do this?
-Reduction of pyruvate by NADH
-Organisms that can't respire or their final electron acceptor isn't around
Fermentation regenerates _____. Coupled with glycolysis, cells are able to produce _______without oxygen.
What is the final electron acceptor in fermentation?
What is the net products of fermentation?
-2 ATP per glucose molecule
In the transition step, pyruvate is _______. In fermentatntation, pyruvate is ________.
What does lactic acid fermentation produce? where are organisms found that do this?
-organisms in cheese, yogurt, and human muscle cells
What does alcohol fermentation produce? What are these organisms used for?
-CO2 and ethanol
-Brewing, winemaking, and baking
While fermentation can be used in food processes for baking or wine making, what negative effect can they have?
True or False: Glycolysis is the only way to convert glucose to pyruvate.
False, there are various pathways, such as the Entner-Doudoroff pathway
True or False: chemoorganotrophs can only use glucose as their carbon source.
What two needs must chemoorganotrophs satisfy in order to use carbon sources other than glucose?
1. A way to get the compound into the cell
2. Enzymes that can break it down or convert it
What alternative sources of carbon can chemoorganotrophs use?
-Polysaccharides and Disaccharides
How can polysaccharides and disaccharides be used as a carbon source for chemoorganotrophs?
-enzymes break them down to monosaccharides which are simple sugars. They can be converted to intermediates of glycolysis.
How can lipids be used as a carbon source for chemoorganotrophs?
Lipids can be hydrolyzed by lipases. Glycerol can be converted and used in glycolysis. Fatty acids are degraded by B-oxidation and enter the TCA cycle.
How can proteins be used as a carbon source for chemoorganotrophs?
They can be hydrolyzed by proteases, the amino group is deaminated, and the carbon skeletons can be converted and enter into glycolysis or the TCA cycle.
Chemolithotrophs extract electron energy from _______ sources, passing them to an electron transport chain and generating a _______ _______ _____.
-Proton motive force
For chemolithotrophs, what does the amount of energy transferred depend on?
The source of electrons and terminal electron acceptor
Most chemolithotrophs are _________. They need to ______ ______ to fulfill their carbon needs.
What is another name for chemolithotrophs?
Hydrogen bacteria, iron bacteria, nitrifying bacteria, and sulfur bacteria are all _________.
With varying electron sources, what is the electron chain like in chemolithotrophs?
It has enzymes that are specific for the electron source.
True or False: chemolithotrophs are strictly anaerobic.
False, they can be either depending on their terminal electron acceptor.
What organisms photosynthesize?
plants, aglae, purple, green, and cyanobacteria
What are the two distinct stages of photosynthesis?
1. Light reactions that capture energy and convert it to ATP and/or reducing power
2. Light-independent reactions that use the energy to make organic compounds
What stage of photosynthesis participates in carbon fixation?
The light-independent reactions that use the energy made in the first stage to make organic compounds
Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic eukaryotes are _______, meaning they produce oxygen.
What does reaction-center pigments do?
Donate excited electrons to an electron transport chain.
Chlorophyl a is an example of _______ ________ ______.
What happens in cyclic phosphorylation?
Photosystem I donates excited electrons for photophosphorylation to produce ATP. Chlorophyll in photosystem I is the terminal electron acceptor.
what happens in Non-cyclic (linear) photophosphorylation?
Excited electrons from photosystem II drive a proton motive force to produce ATP. The electrons are then donated to photosystem I where they reduce NADP+ to NADPH.
What is the terminal electron acceptor in linear and cyclic photophosphorylation?
Cyclic: Photosystem I
In linear photophosphorylation, after photosystem II donates its electrons, how are they replenished?
It splits H2O, generating oxygen?
Linear photophosphorylation is _______, while cyclic is _____.
linear photophosphorylation produces what two produces?
ATP and NADPH
Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria use _______ to harvest light and have a single _______. What electron donors do they use?
-Organic compounds, H2S, H2
How do purple bacteria generate reducing power?
Their electrons do not have enough energy to reduce NADP+, so they use ATP to run the ETC backwards and generate reducing power.
In green bacteria, what is their photosystem similar to? What are their electrons used for?
-Produce ATP and/or reducing power
Plants/algae photosystems are located in the _____ in the ______.They do ______ photophosphorylation with ______ as a source of electrons. They use the _____ _____ to fix carbon dioxide.
Cyanobacteria photosystems are located in the ______. They do ______ photophosphorylation with _____ as a source of electrons. They use the _______ ________ to fix carbon dioxide.
In purple bacteria, photosystems are located in the ______ ____ which has ______ to increase surface area. They do reversed _____ to generate reducing power with ______ sources of electrons. They use the ____ ____ to fix carbon.
In green bacteria, photosystems are located in the ______ _____. They use ______ photophosphorylation with _______ sources of electrons. They use the _____ ____ cycle to fix carbon.
Carbon fixation is only done by _______.
Chemolithoautotrophs and photoautotrophs use ______ to synthesize organic compunds.
The _____ ____ is most commonly used by autotrophs to synthesize organic compounds.
What is the net outcome and input of six turns of the calvin cycle?
-1 fructose-6-phoshate made
-18 ATP, 12 NADPH, and 6 CO2 consumed
Instead of the calvin cycle, ______ ____ use the reverse TCA cycle.
Why do organisms need storage granules?
To accumulate and store large polymers and nutrients.
Not all carbon is completely oxidized. Some is used to make macro-molecules for the cell, called ______ _____.