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Flashcards in Exam I Deck (288):
1

What is microbiology

the study of microscopic organisms

2

________ are the foundation for all life on earth.

Microbes

3

What are Robert Hooke and Anotony Von Leeuwenhoek credited with discovering?

microorganisms

4

What is spontaneous generation? Who disproved this? What was the experiment?

-organisms can emerge from inanimate objects. -Francesco Redi
-An uncovered jar with meat went bad. When covered, it didn't. This proved eggs from flies was causing the meat to go bad, not spontaneous generation on the meat.

5

How did Louis Pasteur disprove spontaneous generation?

Sterilized broth. It remained sterile when air could not continue through the bottleneck to the broth. When the bottleneck was tipped and air entered, microorganisms contaminated it, proving microorganisms were in the air.

6

True or False: Louis Pasteur was the first to disprove spontaneous generation.

False, it was Francesco Redi

7

Why was Pasteur's work hard to replicate? Who explained what was happening and who officially discovered endospores?

-Microorganisms can form endospores, so using heat to sterilize the broth did not always kill all microorganisms present
-Tyndall discovered that microorganisms can be heat resistant
-Cohn discovered endospores

8

What is the germ theory? Who proposed it and who solidified it?

-The theory that microscopic organisms are causative agents in disease
-Jakob Henle proposed it
-Robert Koch solidified it

9

What are pathogens?

Microorganisms that cause disease

10

What are the characteristic communities of microorganisms that colonize a particular location, such as humans?

The Host-Microbe Microbiota

11

What does the host-microbe microbiota do?

-"good" microorganisms that help in digestion and immunity
-Some are pathogens

12

What are the four vital roles of microbes in the world?

1. Nitrogen Fixation
2. Carbon Fixation
3. Oxygen and photosynthesis
4.Degradation

13

How do we as humans use microbes?

-Medically as pathogens
-Industry such as in foods and biofuels
-Model organisms

14

What are the three domains of life?

1. Bacteria
2. Archaea
3. Eukarya

15

Bacteria and archaea are _________. Do they have a nucleus?

-Prokaryotes
-No true nucleus

16

Eukaryotes include what five things?

-Animals
-Fungi
-Plants
-Algae
-Protozoa

17

What kind of organism does this describe?:

Photosynthetic eukaryote, single-celled and multicellular, different shapes and sizes, usually found near the surface of aquatic environments

-Algae

18

What kind of organism does this describe?:

Single-celled or multicellular, gain energy from degrading organic materials, primarily found on land, eukaryotic

-Fungi

19

What kind of organism does this describe?:

Do not have a cell wall, ingest organic food sources, motile, both aquatic and terrestrial, eukaryotic

-Protozoa

20

Single-cell fungi are ______. Multicellular fungi are ______.

-yeast
-mold

21

Viruses, viroids, and prions are _________.

Non-living

22

What kind of organism does this describe?:

metabolically inactive outside of the host, nucleic acid packaged in a protein coat, no ribosomes

Virus

23

What kind of organism does this describe?:

Only a short piece of RNA, replicate inside the host

Viroid

24

What kind of organism does this describe?:

Infectious proteins that cause neurodegenerative diseases, misfolded versions of normal proteins, cause protein aggregates and fibrils that build up in the cell

Prions

25

In E. Coli. K12, Escherichia is the ___________, Coli is the _________, and K12 is the ________.

-genus
-Species
-Strain

26

In general, eukaryotic cells are ________ than prokaryotic cells, however there are some exceptions.

Bigger

27

How was Koch able to solidify germ theory?

He developed lab techniques such as a solid media to obtain pure cultures of microbes

28

Bacteria and archaea are __________ prokaryotes.

Unicellular

29

What distinguishes bacteria from archaea?

archaea do not have peptidoglycan in their cell wall

30

Do prokaryotes have DNA or RNA? Where is it contained?

-RNA contained in a nucleoid

31

What are three parameters of microscopy to consider?

1. Magnification
2. Resolution
3. Contrast

32

______ ______ is when visible light passes through a series of lenses to produce a magnified image

Light Microscopy

33

What are three types of light microscopy?

1. Bright-field
2. Dark-field
3. Phase Contrast

34

______ ______ is the most common form of light microscopy that illuminates the field evenly.

Bright-field

35

_______ ______ is a form of light microscopy that has light directed at an angle to make a bright specimen and dark background

Dark-field

36

______ ______ is a form of light microscopy that increases contrast by amplifying differences in refractive index.

Phase-Contrast

37

The phase contrast microscope increases _______.

Contrast

38

What are three forms of 3D techniques of light microscopy?

1. Differential Interference Contrast (DIC)
2. Scanning Laser
3. Fluorescence

39

_______ _______ _______ is a form of 3D light microscopy in which two light beams pass through the specimen and recombine, making a 3D effect

Differential Interference Contrast (DIC)

40

Which form of light microscopy has a laser beam that scans across successive planes of a specimen, and then a computer creates an image that is 3D and has sectional views?

Scanning Laser

41

Scanning Laser microscopes produce an image that is _____ and has ______ ______

-3D
-Sectional Views

42

__________ microscopes stain specimens or tag molecules with a fluorescent dye, and then expose them to UV light.

Fluorescence

43

A ______ is used in fluorescence microscopy and is something that preferentially binds to a specific cell or cell part.

Tag

44

Fluorescence microscopy includes _______ ______.

Scanning Laser

45

In _______ Microscopy, electron beams are used in place of light, and can clearly magnify images 100,00X. What are the three types?

-electron
1. Transmission
2. Scanning
3. Atomic force

46

True or False: Electron microscopy can not be used to observe living cells.

True

47

What is an advantage of electron microscopy?

It can be used to observe incredibly small things, sch as viruses, which are smaller than bacteria

48

What are the shapes of each of these morphology categories?
-coccus
-Rod (bacillus)
-Vibrio
-Spirillium
-Spirochete

-Round
-Cylindrical
-Short, curved rod
-Curved rod long enough to form spirals
-long, spiral shaped

49

What is the advantage to amorphic shaped bacteria?

-Increase the surface area:volume ratio so that they can absorb more nutrients

50

What do groupings of cells depend on?

The plane in which they divide

51

What plain to chain, packet, and cluster cell groupings divide on?

Chain: parallel
Packet: parallel and perpendicular
Cluster: Random

52

Prokaryotes have a _____ ____ membrane. What does this mean?

-Selectively permeable
-Only certain things pass through based on size and polarity

53

What passes through a selectively permeable membrane?

-Gases and small hydrophobic molecules pass easily
-Water passes by aquaporins
-Large/hydrophilic molecules doe not pass through

54

What do aquaporins do? Are they active or passive?

-Facilitate the transport of water
-Passive

55

_______ transport goes with the concentration gradient. _______ transport goes against the concentration gradient.

-Passive
-Active

56

In a hypotonic solution, where does water flow?

-Into the cell

57

In a hypertonic solution, where does water flow?

-Out of the cell

58

What are two types of passive transport?

1. Simple diffusion
2. Facilitated diffusion

59

What kind of passive transport is rarely seen in bacteria?

Facilitated diffusion

60

Active transporters need what?

Energy

61

What are three kinds of active transporters? What kind of energy do they use?

1. cotransporters --> proton motive force
2. ABC transporters --> ATP
3. Group Translocation --> Chemical energy

62

Which is more important for bacteria: Passive or Active transport?

Active

63

_______ ______ _____ is an electrochemical gradient that provides energy to power things such as transport systems, ATP synthesis, and motility

Proton Motive Force

64

_______ _____ is a transport that chemically alters the substance as it is transported across the membrane. The molecule is no longer transported out.

Group Translocation

65

_________ is a type of transport that is directed by a specific amino acid tag, called a signal sequence, that tells the cell that the molecule needs to go to the membrane.

Secretion

66

________ is glycan chains linked to peptide chains in the cell wall and is unique to bacteria.

Petidoglycan

67

Peptidoglycan is made up of _________.

Carbohydrates

68

True or false: bacteria and archaea have peptidoglycan.

Falso, only bacteria

69

What are three properties of gram positive bacteria?

1. Thick peptidoglycan layer
2. Techoic acid
3. Gel-like between the peptidoglycan and membrane

70

What are three properties of gram negative bacteria?

1. Thin peptidoglycan layer
2. Outer membrane with LPS and porin proteins
3. Periplasm space between the inner and outer membranes

71

What are three properties of LPS?

1. Anchored to lipid A
2. Endotoxin
3. O antigen that is variable

72

How does penicllin affect bacteria? Which bacteria are more susceptible?

-Inhibits cell wall synthesis by preventing glycan chain crosslinking
-Gram positive is more susceptible (no outer membrane)

73

How does lysozyme affect bacteria? Which bacteria are more susceptible?

-Breaks down the linkages in the glycan chain
-Gram positive is more susceptible (no outer membrane)

74

________ staining distinguishes between two groups of bacteria

Differential

75

What colors do gram positive and gram negative bacteria stain?

-Gram positive: purple
-Gram negative: Pink

76

Gram stain is a type of ________ stain.

Differential

77

Why do gram positive cells remain purple after decolorization?

The thick peptidoglycan layer holds the stain in

78

What type of staining is used for cells that can't readily take up dyes? Give an example of this type of cell.

-Acid-fast Staining
-Mycobacterium have a waxy cell wallthat doesnt take up the stain

79

What color are acid-fast cells? What color are non acid-fast cells?

-Red
-Blue

80

Acid-fast staining is a type of ________ stain.

Differential

81

What is an example of an organism that lacks a cell wall and cannot be stained?

Mycoplasma

82

What are three characteristics of archaea cell walls?

1. No peptidoglycan
2. Single membrane
3. S-layers made of sheets of protein or glycoprotein

83

What are the cells wall of algae composed of?

Polysaccharides such as cellulose, pectin, or silica

84

What are the cell walls of fungi composed of?

polysaccharides such as chitin and glycoproteins

85

True or false: Protists have a cell wall.

False

86

Capsules and slime layers are __________ structures.

Extracellular

87

What are two structures that are gel-like layers located outside the cell wall of bacteria?

Capsules and slime layers

88

What do capsules and slime layers do?

used for attachment, protection, and to evade host defenses

89

Capsules and slime layers are made of _________. ____ are distinct and gelatinous, and ___________ are diffuse and irregular?

-Glycocalyx
-Capsule
-Slime Layer

90

_________ are long protein structures used in most prokaryotic mobility.

Flagella

91

How do flagella move in bacteria? In eukaryotes?

They spin like propellers, they are more whip-like

92

Where are peritrichous flagella located? Where are polar flagella located?

-All around the cell
-At the ends

93

What powers flagella in prokaryotes? In eukaryotes?

Proton motive force in prokaryotes, ATP in eukaryotes

94

Where are flagella located in prokaryotes? In eukaryotes?

Under the plasma membrane, outside the membrane

95

Spirochetes have _________ under their outer membrane allowing them to move very fast.

Endoflagella

96

What is chemotaxis?

The movement of bacteria toward or away from a chemical in their environment that they sense and respond to.

97

Bacteria move through a series of _____ and _____.

Runs and tumbles

98

______ are shorter and thinner than flagella, but are similar in structure

Pili

99

The _____ _____ is used by bacteria for conjugation.

Sex pilus

100

________ are pili that allow cells to attach to surfaces.

Fimbriae

101

______ are found in the nucleoid and contain single, circular dsDNA that is tightly packed and supercoiled.

Chromosome

102

_________ are smaller, singular, circular dsDNA molecules that are non-essential but can contain beneficial genes.

Plasmids

103

Plasmids participate in ________ gene transfer.

Horizontal

104

______ are the site of protein synthesis.

Ribosomes

105

The _______ is involved in cell division and shape.

Cytoskeleton

106

________ ______ accumulate and store large polymers or other nutrients

Storage Granules

107

What are structures that are only found in aquatic bacteria to help with buoyancy and are controlled density?

Gas Vesicles

108

_______ are a unique type of dormant cell produced by some bacteria.

Endospores

109

A growing, dividing cell is a ______ cell. ______ is the process of becoming an endospore.

-Vegetative
-Sporulation

110

What are endospores resistant to? What cues their formation?

-Heat, chemicals, UV radiation
-Environmental signals

111

What are three types of special staining techniques for cell structure?

1. Capsule Stain
2. Endospore Stain
3. Flagella Stain

112

Why are lysozymes not effective against mycoplasma?

They don't have a cell wall for lysozymes to act on

113

Who created methods for cultivating bacteria?

Robert Koch

114

Where are prokaryotes found?

Everywhere

115

How do bacterial cells divide?

Binary fission

116

What is generation time?

The time it takes for a population to double in number

117

What is the formula for generation time?

Nt = N0 X 2^n
Nt = number of cells in the population
N0 = original number of cells
n = number of doublings

118

Bacteria undergo _______ growth.

Exponential

119

What are the five stages of the bacterial growth curve?

1. Lag phase
2. Log/Exponential Phase
3. Stationary Phase
4. Death Phase
5. Phase of prolonged decline

120

In what stages of bacterial growth are primary and secondary metabolites made?

Primary are made in the log/exponential phase, and secondary are made in the stationary phase

121

Where is the doubling time measured on the bacterial growth curve?

In the log/exponential phase

122

_______ _______ in mixed microbial communities are growth of a species otherwise unable to survive. The metabolic waste of one is a nutrient for another.

Cooperative Interactions

123

_______ _______ in mixed microbial communities are when they compete for nutrients and synthesize toxic compounds to inhibit competitors.

Competitive Interactions

124

What is quorum sensing?

In biofilms, it is a system of stimuli and response in relation to population density to tightly regulate secretions

125

True or False: biofilms make bacteria more susceptible to disinfectants

False, they are less susceptible

126

What are extracellular polymeric substances?

In a biofilm, bacteria attach to a surface and release polysaccharides and DNA to which other bacteria can attach and grow. This mesh-like substance is the EPS.

127

A population descended from a single cell and is separated from other species or strains is a _______ ________.

Pure Culture

128

In order to be a pure culture, the colony must have grown from what?

A single cell

129

What is a petri dish and agar?

A petri dish allows air and excludes contaminants. It contains agar that is solid and can be sterilized.

130

Why is agar a good medium to grow bacteria?

It can be sterilized, is solid, and few microbes can degrade it

131

What is a colony of bacteria? How many cells are in a colony?

-A visible population
-About 1 million cells

132

What phase of growth are cells at the edge of a colony in? At the center?

-exponential
-death

133

_______ _______ ______ can be used to isolate a single bacteria and obtain a pure culture in the lab.

Streak-plate method

134

What are stock cultures?

A pure culture that is freeze-dried and stored for later inoculation

135

What two things categorize microbial species?

1.Environmental/Growth Conditions
2. Source of energy and carbon

136

List the temperature categories of microbes from coldest to hottest.

1.Psychrophile
2.Psychrotroph
3.Mesophile
4.Thermophile
5. Hyperthermophile

137

What are four environmental factors that affect microbial growth?

1. Temperature
2. Atmosphere (oxygen content)
3. pH
4. Water Content (salt concentration)

138

List the pH categories of microbes from most acidic to most basic.

1. Acidophile
2. Neutrophile
3. Alkalophile

139

__________ are organisms that thrive in conditions that would kill most other organisms. They are most often archaea.

Extremophiles

140

Microbes that can grow in high-salt concentrations are _______. Microbes that require high levels of salt are __________.

-Halotolerant
-Halophile

141

_________ ________ grow only when oxygen is available.

Obligate aerobe

142

________ _______ grow best when oxygen is available, but can grow without it.

Facultative aerobe

143

________ ________ cannot grow when oxygen is present

Obligate anaerobe

144

___________ grow only if small amounts of oxygen are present

Microaerophile

145

________ ________ grow equally well with or without oxygen.

aerotolerant anaerobe

146

ROS is produced as a by-product of _____ respiration. What does this do?

-aerobic
-damages DNA, proteins, and membranes

147

What is one nutrient that all microbes and organisms need?

Carbon

148

What does carbon fixation do?

Converts inorganic carbon dioxide to useful organic forms of carbon

149

Photoautotrophs get their energy source from _____ and their carbon source from _______.

-sunlight
-carbon dioxide

150

Photoheterotrphs get their energy from ______ and their carbon from ______.

-Sulight
-organic compounds

151

Chemolithoautotrophs get their energy from _______and their carbon from ______.

-inorganic chemicals
-carbon dioxide

152

-Chemoorganoheterotrophs get their energy from ______ and their carbon from _______.

-organic compounds
-organic compounds

153

Phototrophs harvest energy from________, while chemotrophs harvest energy from ________.

-Sun
-chemical sources

154

Which domain of life are chemolithoautotrophs unique to?

prokaryotes

155

______ _____contains nutrient rich ingredients like meat juices and digested protein. The exact chemical compositions are variable.

Complex media

156

_______ ______ media contains precise amounts of pure chemicals.

Chemically defined

157

_______ _______ media inhibits growth of certain species to make isolation of one species easier. Give an example of this type of agar.

-Selective media
-MacConkey agar

158

______ media changes certain species in a recognizable way.

Differential

159

MacConkey agar is both a _____ and _____ media.

Selective
Differential

160

What has to be used in the lab to satisfy atmospheric conditions of microbes?

-special containers and chambers

161

What does enrichment of a medium do?

conditions favor the growth of one species over another to help narrow down a species if it isn't present in high numbers in the mixed cultures

162

What kind of cells are counted in direct cell counts?

all cells, living and dead

163

When measuring biomass, what is turbidity proportional to?

The concentration of cells

164

What do visible cell counts measure? How are they counted?

-Only live/dividing cells
-poured on a plate and counted

165

______ ______ is a method for detecting and measuring growth that is for liquid culture with relatively few cells. The cells are concentrated before being moved to a plate.

-Membrane Filtration

166

what cell products can be measured for detecting growth? What does each measure?

-Acid and gas production
-ATP
-measures dividing cells

167

_________ is the total of all chemical reactions in the cell

metabolism

168

__________ breaks things down. What happens in these reactions?

-Catabolism
-energy is released, a source of reducing power is made, and precursors for biosynthesis are made

169

__________ builds things in the cell. What happens in these reactions?

-Anabolism
-Energy is consumed, reducing power is consumed, complex organic molecules are made from simpler ones

170

Energy is the capacity to do ______.

Work

171

What are the two types of energy? Describe them.

Potential (stored energy)
Kinetic (energy of movement)

172

The most common energy currency in the cell is _______.

ATP

173

What is free energy?

Energy available to do work

174

What types of work does a cell need to do?

Chemical, transport, and mechanical work

175

In ______ reactions, the reactants have more free energy and energy is released.

Exergonic

176

In _________ reactions, products have more free energy and energy must be used.

Endergonic

177

While ATP is a common energy currency of the cell, ________ is an acceptor of free energy.

ADP

178

What are three ways energy is transferred to ATP? Give examples of each.

1. Substrate-level phosphorylation (exergonic reactions)
2. Oxidative Phosphorylation (ETC, proton motive force, ATP synthase)
3.Photophosphorylation (light energy used to create a proton motive force)

179

Substrate level phosphorylation reactions are _______, in which the phosphate comes from the ________.

-exergonic
-substrate

180

A substance that loses electrons is _______, while a substance that gains electrons is ________.

-oxidized
-reduced

181

What does reducing power result in?

electron energy

182

Why do cells use multiple steps when degrading or synthesizing reactions?

-coupling reactions
-Slowly release ATP
-Multiple places that regulation can occur

183

Enzymes are biological ________ that do what to reactions?

-catalysts
-speed up

184

True or False: Enzymes alter the free energy of a reaction.

False

185

Name three properties of enzymes

1. They lower the activation energy
2. They are highly specific for their substrate
3. They are not used up in a reaction

186

What are cofactors?

Non-protein molecules such as magnesium or FAD that assist in some enzyme's activities

187

What happens in allosteric regulation?

A regulatory molecule binds to an enzyme at a place other than the active site. This distorts the enzyme shape, which can prevent or enhance the substrate from binding

188

What is feedback inhibition?

The end product of a pathway binds to an upstream enzyme and inhibits it

189

What happens in non-competitive inhibition? Competitive inhibition?

-Inhibitor binds to a site other than the active site
-Inhibitor binds to the active site

190

Non-competitive inhibition is a type of ________ inhibition.

Allosteric

191

Energy _______ is critical for living cells.

Transfer

192

What is ATP used to couple?

-Exergonic and endergonic reactions through substrate level phosphorylation

193

What environmental factors affect enzyme activity?

pH, temperature, salt concentration

194

FAD, NAD, and NADP are ______ ______ that are useful for carrying electrons from one pathway to another.

Electron carriers

195

What two things do cells need to do?

1. Harvest energy
2. Build new cell material

196

Electron carriers have _____ _____ (they can reduce other molecules)

Reducing Power

197

________ is a starting point for all cellular components.

Glucose

198

Glucose is fully oxidized to what?

Carbon dioxide

199

The oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide includes what four processes?

1. Glycolysis
2. PPP
3. Transition Step
4. TCA cycle

200

True or False: If oxygen is not present, glycolysis will not occur.

False

201

What are the inputs of glycolysis?

Glucose
2 ATP

202

What are the net outputs of glycolysis?

-2 ATP
- 2 NADH
- 2 Pyruvate
-Precursor metabolites

203

What are the start and end products of glycolysis?

-Glucose
-Pyruvate

204

True or False: Heterotrophs, but not autotrophs, rely on glycolysis.

False, both do

205

Steps 1-5 of glycolysis are the _____ ____ phase, while steps 6-10 are the ______ phase.

-Energy Investment
-Payoff

206

In glycolysis, ATP and ADP transfer phosphoryl groups via what mechanism?

Substrate level phosphorylation

207

What are the inputs and outputs of PPP?

Inputs: Glucose
Outputs: NADPH, precursor metabolites, G3P that can feed back into glycolysis

208

The primary role to run PPP is what?

To make essential precursor metabolites for anabolism

209

What are the inputs and outputs of the TCA cycle?

Inputs: 2 acetyl-CoA
Outputs: 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP, 4 CO2, precursor metabolites

210

What are the inputs an outputs of the transition step?

Inputs: 2 pyruvate
Outputs: 2 NADH, 2 Acetyl-CoA, 2 CO2

211

In the transition step, pyruvate is converted to what?

Acetyl-CoA

212

When is glucose fully oxidized?

At the end of the TCA cycle

213

In eukaryotes, where does central catabolism take place?

Glycolysis, the transition step, and fermentation are all in the cytoplasm. The TCA cycle takes place in the mitochondrial membrane. Respiration takes place in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

214

In prokaryotes, where does central catabolism take place?

Glycolysis, the transition step, the TCA cycle, and fermentation all take place in the cytoplasm. Respiration takes place in the cytoplasmic membrane.

215

In the energy investment phase of glycolysis in prokaryotes, where does the phosphate come from?

-The first phosphate is added via group translocation into the cell
-The second phosphate is added from ATP via substrate level phosphorylation

216

What step of central metabolism generates the most reducing power?

TCA cycle

217

True or False: Fermentation is a type of anaerobic respiration

False

218

The oxidation of glucose is _______ _______. The transfer of electrons to a terminal electron acceptor is______ and _______.

-Central Metabolism
-Respiration and fermentation

219

________ is the partial oxidation of sugars that can occur without oxygen.

Fermentation

220

_______ respiration uses oxygen as the final electron acceptor. _______ respiration uses something other than oxygen as the final acceptor. Which is more efficient?

-aerobic
-anaerobic
-aerobic

221

What does the chemiosmotic theory say?

The electron transport chain generates a proton motive force that drives the synthesis of ATP by ATP synthase

222

In prokaryotes and eukaryotes, where to respiration happen?

Prokaryotes- cytoplasmic membrane
eukaryotes- inner mitochondrial membrane

223

In respiration, what is electron energy gradually being released coupled to? What is the energy transferred to?

-coupled to pumping of protons
-transfers energy to an electrochemical gradient used to synthesize ATP

224

In the electron transport chain, electron carriers pass electrons to each other and move protons across the membrane. What does this generate?

A proton motive force

225

How many complexes are there in the electron transport chain of eukaryotes? What molecules pass electrons between the complexes?

-4
-Ubiquinone and cytochrome C

226

True or False: In the electron transport chain, only one enzme is needed to accept electrons from both NADH and FADH2.

False, a specific enzyme is needed for each carrier

227

Compared to the ETC of eukaryotes, what structures do prokaryotes not have?

Complex III and cytochrome C

228

Which would you expect to generate more ATP in the electron transport chain: NADH or FADH2? Why?

NADH. It enters the chain earlier and the electrons start at a higher energy and can release more energy

229

True or False: Prokaryotes can harvest electron energy from sources other than NADH and FADH2, such as inorganic sources like H2S.

True

230

True or False: Prokaryotes can only have one kind of electron carrier in each species.

False, there can be several different ones

231

Prokaryote respiration structures/enzymes/electron carriers are very _____.

Diverse

232

What are the advantages and disadvantages to anaerobic respiration?

Advantage: can respire and grow in environments without oxygen
Disadvantage: Harvests less energy

233

Why does anaerobic respiration harvest less energy?

Inorganic terminal electron acceptors have lower affinities for electrons

234

True or False: Chemolithotrophs produce more energy than chemoorganotrophs.

False, chemoorganotrophs use glucose, which is more likely to give up electrons

235

ATP synthase is powered by what to produce ATP? What is this process termed?

-Proton Motive Force
-Oxidative Phosphorylation

236

In addition to oxidative phosphorylation, what do prokaryotes use the proton motive force to power?

-flagella
-membrane transporters

237

What is the theoretical energy yield maximum in prokaryotes? Why does this not hold true for all prokaryotes?

-38 ATP
-They have diverse pathways and enzymes, and can utilize fermentation or respire aerobically or anaerobically

238

How much ATP total is produced from glycolysis, the transition step, and TCA cycle, including the ATP made after electron carriers go through respiration?

Glycolysis: 8 ATP (2 OP and 2 NADH = 6ATP)
Transition: 6 ATP (2 NADH = 6 ATP)
TCA: 24 ATP (2 OP, 6 NADH = 18 ATP, 2 FADH = 4 ATP)

239

How much ATP is made through substrate level phosphorylation in glycolysis, transition step, TCA, and respiration?

4 ATP

240

What is fermentation and what organisms do this?

-Reduction of pyruvate by NADH
-Organisms that can't respire or their final electron acceptor isn't around

241

Fermentation regenerates _____. Coupled with glycolysis, cells are able to produce _______without oxygen.

-NAD+
-ATP

242

What is the final electron acceptor in fermentation?

Pyruvate

243

What is the net products of fermentation?

-2 ATP per glucose molecule

244

In the transition step, pyruvate is _______. In fermentatntation, pyruvate is ________.

-oxidized
-reduced

245

What does lactic acid fermentation produce? where are organisms found that do this?

-lactate
-organisms in cheese, yogurt, and human muscle cells

246

What does alcohol fermentation produce? What are these organisms used for?

-CO2 and ethanol
-Brewing, winemaking, and baking

247

While fermentation can be used in food processes for baking or wine making, what negative effect can they have?

Food spoilage

248

True or False: Glycolysis is the only way to convert glucose to pyruvate.

False, there are various pathways, such as the Entner-Doudoroff pathway

249

True or False: chemoorganotrophs can only use glucose as their carbon source.

False

250

What two needs must chemoorganotrophs satisfy in order to use carbon sources other than glucose?

1. A way to get the compound into the cell
2. Enzymes that can break it down or convert it

251

What alternative sources of carbon can chemoorganotrophs use?

-Polysaccharides and Disaccharides
-lipids
-proteins

252

How can polysaccharides and disaccharides be used as a carbon source for chemoorganotrophs?

-enzymes break them down to monosaccharides which are simple sugars. They can be converted to intermediates of glycolysis.

253

How can lipids be used as a carbon source for chemoorganotrophs?

Lipids can be hydrolyzed by lipases. Glycerol can be converted and used in glycolysis. Fatty acids are degraded by B-oxidation and enter the TCA cycle.

254

How can proteins be used as a carbon source for chemoorganotrophs?

They can be hydrolyzed by proteases, the amino group is deaminated, and the carbon skeletons can be converted and enter into glycolysis or the TCA cycle.

255

Chemolithotrophs extract electron energy from _______ sources, passing them to an electron transport chain and generating a _______ _______ _____.

-Inorganic
-Proton motive force

256

For chemolithotrophs, what does the amount of energy transferred depend on?

The source of electrons and terminal electron acceptor

257

Most chemolithotrophs are _________. They need to ______ ______ to fulfill their carbon needs.

-Autotrophs
-Fix CO2

258

What is another name for chemolithotrophs?

Rock eaters

259

Hydrogen bacteria, iron bacteria, nitrifying bacteria, and sulfur bacteria are all _________.

Chemolithotrophs

260

With varying electron sources, what is the electron chain like in chemolithotrophs?

It has enzymes that are specific for the electron source.

261

True or False: chemolithotrophs are strictly anaerobic.

False, they can be either depending on their terminal electron acceptor.

262

What organisms photosynthesize?

plants, aglae, purple, green, and cyanobacteria

263

What are the two distinct stages of photosynthesis?

1. Light reactions that capture energy and convert it to ATP and/or reducing power
2. Light-independent reactions that use the energy to make organic compounds

264

What stage of photosynthesis participates in carbon fixation?

The light-independent reactions that use the energy made in the first stage to make organic compounds

265

Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic eukaryotes are _______, meaning they produce oxygen.

oxygenic

266

What does reaction-center pigments do?

Donate excited electrons to an electron transport chain.

267

Chlorophyl a is an example of _______ ________ ______.

Reaction-center pigments

268

What happens in cyclic phosphorylation?

Photosystem I donates excited electrons for photophosphorylation to produce ATP. Chlorophyll in photosystem I is the terminal electron acceptor.

269

what happens in Non-cyclic (linear) photophosphorylation?

Excited electrons from photosystem II drive a proton motive force to produce ATP. The electrons are then donated to photosystem I where they reduce NADP+ to NADPH.

270

What is the terminal electron acceptor in linear and cyclic photophosphorylation?

Linear: NADPH
Cyclic: Photosystem I

271

In linear photophosphorylation, after photosystem II donates its electrons, how are they replenished?

It splits H2O, generating oxygen?

272

Linear photophosphorylation is _______, while cyclic is _____.

-oxygenic
-anoxygenic

273

linear photophosphorylation produces what two produces?

ATP and NADPH

274

Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria use _______ to harvest light and have a single _______. What electron donors do they use?

-bacteriophylls
-photosystem
-Organic compounds, H2S, H2

275

How do purple bacteria generate reducing power?

Their electrons do not have enough energy to reduce NADP+, so they use ATP to run the ETC backwards and generate reducing power.

276

In green bacteria, what is their photosystem similar to? What are their electrons used for?

-Photosystem I
-Produce ATP and/or reducing power

277

Plants/algae photosystems are located in the _____ in the ______.They do ______ photophosphorylation with ______ as a source of electrons. They use the _____ _____ to fix carbon dioxide.

-Thylakoids
-chloroplasts
-Linear
-Water
-Calvin Cycle

278

Cyanobacteria photosystems are located in the ______. They do ______ photophosphorylation with _____ as a source of electrons. They use the _______ ________ to fix carbon dioxide.

-Thylakoids
-linear
-water
-Calvin cycle

279

In purple bacteria, photosystems are located in the ______ ____ which has ______ to increase surface area. They do reversed _____ to generate reducing power with ______ sources of electrons. They use the ____ ____ to fix carbon.

-cytoplasmic membrane
-invaginations
-ETC
-varying
Calvin cycle

280

In green bacteria, photosystems are located in the ______ _____. They use ______ photophosphorylation with _______ sources of electrons. They use the _____ ____ cycle to fix carbon.

-Cytoplasmic membrane
-Linear
-varying
-Reversed TCA

281

Carbon fixation is only done by _______.

Autotrophs

282

Chemolithoautotrophs and photoautotrophs use ______ to synthesize organic compunds.

CO2

283

The _____ ____ is most commonly used by autotrophs to synthesize organic compounds.

Calvin cycle

284

What is the net outcome and input of six turns of the calvin cycle?

-1 fructose-6-phoshate made
-18 ATP, 12 NADPH, and 6 CO2 consumed

285

Instead of the calvin cycle, ______ ____ use the reverse TCA cycle.

Green bacteria

286

Why do organisms need storage granules?

To accumulate and store large polymers and nutrients.

287

Not all carbon is completely oxidized. Some is used to make macro-molecules for the cell, called ______ _____.

Precursor metabolites

288

An organism is _____ what the pathways/enzymes are lacking and an end product must be supplied by the environment.

Auxotrophic