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Flashcards in Exam I Deck (20):

Classifications of Law:

-Substantive and procedural
-Public and private
-Civil and criminal


Articles I and IV

-Allow the government to make statutes

-Article I
--Section VIII:
----Protects both enumerated and implied powers
----Necessary and proper clause
----Protects the government's right to regulate interstate commerce, and all that impacts it


Article III

-Common law (aka judge-made, decisional) relies on "stare decisis," which is a system of precedent


Article VI

-Supremacy clause


Bill of Rights

-First amendment
--Protects the freedom of:
----The press

-Fourth amendment
--Search and seizure

-Fifth amendment
--Protects the right to life, liberty, and property through the following:
----Due process (You have to be given notice if your right to life, liberty, or property is being affected by the government.)
----Equal protection
----Double jeopardy (Protects against self-incrimination)
----Imminent domain (Pay just compensation)

-Tenth amendment
--Reserved powers clause


Three Types of Rules and Methods


-Rulemaking methods:


Powers of Agencies

-The primary function of agencies is to make rules
--Agencies are therefore kinda like a mini-government, but none of the members were elected

--Legislative budget power
--Executive appointment power
--Judicial review of decisions
--Freedom of information act
--Administrative Procedures Act


Equal Pay Act (1963)

-Holds that employers could not discriminate based on gender in the payment of wages

--Quantity/Quality of production
--Any factor other than gender

--BFOQ (cannot be race)
--Skills and aptitude test


Employment at Will Exemptions

-National Origin

-Later additions:
--Age (1968)
--Pregnancy (1975)
--Disabled (1990)

-Public Policy Exceptions:
--Whistle-blowing: turning employer in for doing something illegal
--Refusing to commit an illegal act
--Performing a public duty (ex: jury service, National Guard, etc.)
--Exercising a public right (ex: right to protest)


Types of Contracts

-Express: stated, signed, can fire you but that would be a breach of contract
-Implied: employee handbook


Labor Laws

-Norris–La Guardia Act (1952)
--Anti-Injunction Bill
--First federal law to address labor conditions
--Outlawed yellow dog contract

-Wegner Act (National Labor Relations Act)
--Created the NLRB (National Labor Relations Board)
--Allowed workers to join, assist, and promote unions

-Taft-Harvey Act (Labor Management Relations Act)
--Put brakes on union expansion
--Outlawed certain types of strikes:
--Also outlawed union/closed shops, in which employees were forced to join unions
--Allowed states to elect “right to work” laws (allowed states to opt out of labor union picture)


Fair Labor Standards Act

-Governs the following:
--Child labor
--Minimum wage


Key Federal Agencies

-Department of Labor
-OSHA (protects safety of workers)


Monopoly Defense

--7-20 years

--Life of the author and 70 years

--10 years

-The unauthorized use of something under the above protections is considered infringement.



-TILA (Truth in Lending Act)
--Consumer protection act that requires true information be disclosed to consumers in consumer law
--Federal Trade Commission enforced these rules
--Regulation Z: set forth information that must be provided to consumer, and coined the term APR (annual percentage rate; true rate of interest)

-ECOA (Equal Credit Opportunity Act)
--No discrimination based on the following:
-----National origin
----Marital status

-EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
--National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
--CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act)
--Administers these, as well as the Clean Water/Air Act, etc.


Sherman Antitrust Act

-Section I:
--Every contract, combination, and conspiracy in the restraint of trade is illegal
--All involve collusion, concerted activity
--Must involve two or more parties

-Section II:
--Monopolization, and attempts to monopolize, are illegal
--Involves one party


"Bad" Things Underneath the Sherman Antitrust Act

-Horizontal price fixing
-Horizontal market division or allocation
-Horizontal tying arrangements
-Horizontal group boycott
-Horizontal merger


Things Later Covered by the Robinson/Patman and/or the Clayton Act

--Price discrimination
--Gave new test to determine legality

--Price discrimination


Defenses Against Monopolization

-Superior products
-Business acumen
-Historical accident


Difference Between 1933 and 1934 Acts

--Disclosure statute requiring true and accurate information, prospectus, items and answers

--Created SEC to accept registrations; required periodical reports (10K, 10Q, and 8K)
--Punishes for violation of Truth in Securities Act