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Population & community 1st & 2nd Laws of Energy-

the first law of energy is energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can change from one for to another. Second law of energy is when converting energy from one form to another -some of the useful energy is “lost” (usually as heat)


Kinetic/potential energy

Kinetic energy is energy possessed by objects in motion. Potential energy is stored energy.


J-shaped, s-shaped curves

A J-shaped curve is used to show exponential growth (a population increasing at a constant percentage over time), S-shaped curve shows the limiting factor principle (area can only support a certain number of creatures)



– full of alpha particles, gamma ray, ad beta particles


Biotic potential (r)

intrinsic rate of natural increase (growth), r=birth rate – death rate


Electromagnetic pulse

this energy similar to lighting its spreads in all directions. (computers, telephones, radios, etc.)


Density-dependent factors

predation; predators ignore prey pop. If in low numbers, become recognized as food when pop. Grows (increased density)


Biosphere & ecosystem

Biosphere is the part of the earth that supports life and consists of the Lithosphere (soil), Atmosphere (Air), Hydrosphere (Water). Ecosystem is where living and nonliving components of environment plus processes that occur there.


Density-independent factors

Natural occurs kill regardless of density