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Flashcards in Exam I Deck (258)
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1

What is the purpose of a brain?

A brain helps us respond (flexibly, quickly, and with control) to changes in the environment

2

How do we describe behavior?

Structure (what, when, which) Function (what happens as a result of the behavior)

3

Tinbergen's Four "Whys"

Proximal Causes (Individual): Mechanism & Ontogeny Ultimate Causes (Species): Adaptive Value and Phylogeny

4

Mechanism

One of Tinbergen's Four Whys. A proximate/individual cause. What is the physiological explanation of the behavior? What in the body or brain changes to initiate the behavior?

5

Ontogeny

One of Tinbergen's Four Whys. A proximate/individual cause. How did the behavior develop over an animal's lifespan? Is it innate or learned, or both? Is it influenced more by genetics or the environment?

6

Adaptive Value

One of Tinbergen's Four Whys. An ultimate/species cause. What is the evolutionary explanation of the behavior? How does a behavior contribute to reproductive fitness?

7

Phylogeny

One of Tinbergen's Four Whys. An ultimate/species cause. How did the behavior change over the evolutionary history of the species?

8

Empiricism

Forming conclusions based on objective observation, control, and replication

9

Somatic intervention

We do something to the body and see what happens to behavior (i.e. stimulate brain region, affects movement)

10

Behavioral intervention

We do something to behavior and see what happens to the body (i.e. present a visual stimulus, causing changes in electrical activity of the brain)

11

Correlation

We determine (mathematically) if a somatic variable and behavioral variable covary

12

Delgado's charging bull experiment

Used radio signal to stimulate caudate nucleus (in the basal ganglia) - framed as a "taming center" but actually just makes you turn left

13

Morgan's Canon/Occam's razor

A simple explanation is more likely than a complex one

14

DRD4

Encodes Dopamine Receptor D4. Most people have 2R/4R repeat on the axon, some have a 7R repeat (changes the shape of the dopamine D4 receptor - doesn't bind as well). Therefore, it takes more dopamine to get the same response with the 7R repeat. Less activation in the prefrontal cortex and the reward pathway- need more of a stimulus for a good time. Correlated with migration.

15

The levels of analysis

Social, organ, neural systems, circut level, celular level, synaptic level, molecular level

16

Applied behavioral neuroscience

focuses on understanding and treating dysfunction

17

Natural selection

If a trait increases fitness, it is an adaptation and will be passed along to future generations. This requires genetics - a biological mechanism of trait transmission. 

18

Sexual selection

If a trait attracts a mate, it will be passed on to future generations

19

Mutations

Gene change. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (single base) and tandem repeat variations (portions repeat). 

20

Silent mutation

Doesn't affect how the gene is expressed

21

Nonsense mutation

Doesn't code for anything

22

Missense Mutation

Change in the expressed gene 

23

Frameshift mutation

An insertion or deletion or both - more serious

24

Directional selection

25

Stabalizing selection

26

Disruptive selection

27

How can we explain the persistence of apparent genetic disadvantage?

There might be advantages (i.e. being a carrier of the sickle cell gene decreases chance of getting malaria)

28

Is evolution?

No! Not intentional - doesn't have a goal

29

Convergent evolution

Different species have different ways of solving the same problem (homoplasy)

30

Homoplasy 

behaviors/characteristics appear similar because they emerged to solve similar problems