EXAM I Autonomic Nervous System I Flashcards Preview

Human Disease and Therapeutics > EXAM I Autonomic Nervous System I > Flashcards

Flashcards in EXAM I Autonomic Nervous System I Deck (46):
1

the autonomic nervous system is comprised of which 2 neurons in a chain?

  • pre-ganglionic (ganglion = a collection of cell bodies)
  • post-ganglionic

2

most organs are dually innervated by both the ___ and ___ nervous system, and the two tend to have ___ effects on the organs innervated

  • sympathetic and parasympathetic
  • opposite

3

which are the two tissues innervated by the sympathetic nervous system that have muscarinic receptors?

sweat glands and salivary glands

4

pre-ganglionic cell bodies of the sympathetic nervous system are associated with the ___ region

thorocolumbar

5

pre-ganglionic sympathetic nervous system axons extend to ___ and ___ ganglia (hence, they tend to be ___)

  • para- and pre-vertebral
  • short

6

in the ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system, axon terminals of the sympathetic pre-ganglionic neurons synapse onto ___

sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons

7

post-ganglionic cell bodies of the sympathetic nervous system are in ___ and ___ ganglia

para- and pre-vertebral

8

post-ganglionic axons/fibers of the sympathetic nervous system extend to ___

effector tissues/organs

9

sympathetic pre-ganglionic also innervate the ___, which has what effect?

  • adrenal medulla
  • adrenal cells release epinephrine and norepinephrine into the bloodstream

10

pre-ganglionic cell bodies of the parasympathetic nervous system are located in the ___ region

craniosacral

11

pre-ganglionic axons of the parasympathetic nervous system extend to ganglia located ___

near or in effector tissues/organs

12

in the ganglia, axon terminals of the parasympathetic pre-ganglionic neurons synapse onto ___

parasympathetic post-ganglionic neurons

13

post-ganglionic cell bodies of the parasympathetic nervous system are in the ___

parasympathetic ganglia near or in effector tissue/organs

14

axons of parasympathetic post-ganglionic tissues innervate the ___

effector tissue

15

what are two classes of neuromuscular blockers?

depolarizing (non-competitive) and non-depolarizing

16

what is succinylcholine?

  • a depolarizing (non-competitive) neuromuscular blocker that acts as a nicotinic agonist and depolarizes/desensitizes the neuromuscular endplate
  • it opens the NIC channels and keeps these open such that the neuron is depolarized and unresponsive to another ACh challenge

17

what is tubocurare (aka tubocurarine)?

a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker that competes with ACh at nicotinic receptors

18

what 3 things can happen of AChE is blocked?

  • affects BOTH sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
  • affects tissues innervated by post-ganglionic fibers
  • affects signaling at the neuromuscular junction

19

what is sarin?

a cholinesterase inhibitor

20

what are some effects of sarin on the body?

main effect is an increase in acetylcholine, which causes:

  • increase in HR
  • stimulates skeletal muscle = tetani and eventually you will stop breathing
  • increase in salivation
  • watery eyes
  • blurred vision
  • increase in perspiration
  • diarrhea
  • death

21

what can be used to reverse the effects of sarin?

atropine

22

botulinim toxin prevents the release of ___, which causes what?

  • ACh
  • relax intraocular muscles, treats muscle dystonia (spasms), removes wrinkles

23

what are two cholinergic agents used in dentistry?

  • cevimeline (evoxac)
  • pilocarpine (salagen)

24

___ is a cholinergic agonist used to treat xerostomia in sjogrens syndrome

cevimeline (evoxac)

25

___ is a cholinergic agonist used to treat xerostomia after radiotherapy

pilocarpine (salagen)

26

what are 4 cholinomimetic agents?

  • cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil)
  • bethanechol
  • pilocarpine
  • nicotine

27

what are some uses of cholinomimetic agents?

treatment of...

  • myasthenia gravis
  • glaucoma
  • alzheimer's disease
  • smoking cessation

28

what is bethanechol (urecholine) indicated for?

increases urine output to treat urinary retention

29

what is pilocarpine indicated for?

increases saliva secretions and treats glaucoma 

30

what is succinylcholine indicated for?

used in surgeries to relax muscles

31

what is mecamylamine indicated for?

ganglionic blocker, used originally to treat hypertension (now only used for very significant cases of HTN - never used as a first choice)

32

what is carbachol (miostat) indicated for?

treats glaucoma

33

what is edrophonium indicated for?

reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used to diagnose myasthenia gravis

34

describe closed angle glaucoma

  • caused by blocked drainage, resulting in a sudden rise in intraocular pressure
  • has a closed or narrow angle between the iris and cornea
  • develops very quickly and requires immediate medical attention
  • has symptoms and damage that are usually very noticeable
  • treat with pilocarpine to contract (miosis) and pull iris to open trabecular meshwork

35

what are two examples of antimuscarinic agents?

atropine and scopolamine

36

what are antimuscarinic agents used for?

parkinson's disease (adjunctive therapy), motion sickness, COPD, urinary urgency

37

what are side effects of antimuscarinic agents?

  • dry mouth
  • constipation
  • blurred vision
  • sedation
  • urinary retention

38

what are drugs that have anticholinergic effects?

  • antiemetics
  • anti-parkinson's
  • antimigraine
  • antiarrhythmics
  • antidiarrheals
  • antihistamines
  • antidepressants
  • antipsychotics
  • herbal medicines

39

what is pralidoxime indicated for?

treatment of organophosphate poisoning (ex. pesticide poisoning)

40

what are 4 synthetic anticholinergic drugs?

  • glycopyrrolate (robinul)
  • benztropine mesylate (cogentin)
  • propantheline bromide (pro-banthine)
  • trihyxphenidyl HCl (artane)

41

what is glycopyrrolate (robinul) used for?

inhibits salivation pre-operatively; controls upper airway secretions

42

what is benztropine mesylate (cogentin) used for?

anti-parkinson's

43

what is propantheline bromide (pro-banthine) used for?

traveler's diarrhea

44

what is trihyxphenidyl HCl (artane) used for?

anti-parkinson's

45

dopamine is released from ___ in the ___

sympathetic nerve terminals in the kidney

46

at high doses, dopamine activates ___ and ___

alpha and beta receptors