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Flashcards in Exam II Deck (17):

What are some characteristics of fatty acids?

-modify proteins via covalent bonding allowing them to target membranes
-can be stored as fuels in the form of triacylglycerols
-derivatives serve as hormones, signal molecules, and intracellular messengers


What are the two rules discussed in class about the nomenclature of fatty acids?

1. derived from the parent hydrocarbon
-no double bond, -anoic
-one double bond, -enoic
-two double bonds, -dienoic
-three double bonds, -trienoic
2. 18:0 represents a fatty acid with 18 Cs and no double bonds
18:2 represent a fatty acid with 18 Cs and two double bonds


How are carbon bonds numbered? Double bonds?

-starting at carboxyl terminus
-carbon 2 (alpha) and 3(beta)
-methyl carbon at distal end is referred to as omega

Double bonds:
-position of double bond is denoted by (delta) followed by superscript
-counting from the distal end requires the omega to be number one and will be denoted as (omega)-3


What are some properties of fatty acids?

-contain an even number of carbons, between 14-24
+16 and 18 are most common fatty acids
-most unsaturated fatty acids contain cis double bonds
-fatty acids are ionized at physiological pH so it should be referred to as it's carboxylate form ex. palmitate -> palmitic acid
-unsaturated fatty acids have a lower melting than saturated fatty acids of the same length
-the melting points of saturated fatty acids increase with chain length


What are the essential fatty acids and non-essential? Name the number of Cs, double bonds, and common name.

-palmitate, 16C, and 0 bonds
-stearate, 18Cs, 0 bonds

omega-6 essential:
-linoleate, 18Cs, 2 bonds
-arachidonate, 20Cs, 4 bonds

omega-3 essential:
-linolenate, 18Cs, 3 bonds


How is an archaea able to withstand such high temperatures?

-the membrane lipid contains an ether linkage which is more resistant to hydrolysis
-the branched and saturated hydrocarbons are more resistant to oxidation


What are the three major membrane lipids?



What are the 4 components of a phospholipid?

-fatty acid- hydrophobic barrier
-backbone to which fatty acids are attached: glycerol (3C alcohol; phosphoglycerides) or spingosine (complex alcohol; sphingomyelin)
-alcohol attached to the phosphate


What is the key intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphoglycerides?

phosphatidate -> small amount present in membranes


What are the phosphoglycerides derived from phosphatidate and what are their purpose?

-phosphatidylserine: memory and cognition
-phosphotidylcholine: major constituent of cell membrane and pulmonary surfactant
-phosphatidylethanolamine: 25% of phospholipids, found in nervous tissue such as white matter of the brain
-phosphatidylinositol: important signaling and other functional activities in eukaryotic cells
-diphosphatidylglycerol: important component of inner mitochondrial membrane


What is a sphingosine?

an amino alcohol that contains a long, unsaturated hydrocarbon chain


What is sphingomyelin?

-the phospholipid with the sphingosine as the backbone
-amino group of the spingosine backbone linked to a fatty acid via an amide bond
-found in animal cell membranes, especially in the membranous myelin sheath that surrounds some nerve cell axons


What are glycolipids?

-sugar-containing lipids
-derived from sphnigosine
-differ from spingomyelin is the identity of the unit that is linked to the primary hydroxyl group of the sphingosine backbone
-oriented with the sugar residues always on the extracellular side of the membrane


What is the simplest glycolipid and what are some of it's characteristics?

-contains a single sugar residue (glucose or galactose)
-cerebroside is the common name for the group of glycosphingolipids called monoglylceramides which is an important component in animal muscle and nerve cell membranes


What are some characteristics of cholesterol?

-a steroid (most common), present in eukaryotes but not most prokaryotes
-built from 4 fused hydrocarbon rings
-classified as a sterol
-major component of eukaryotic plasma membrane
+absent from the intracellular membranes
+absent in prokaryotes
+oriented parallel to the fatty acid chains of the phospholipids, and the hydroxyl group interacts with the phospholipid head
-metabolic precursor of steroid hormones


What is a lipid?

-water insoluble biomolecules that are highly soluble in organic solvents
-make up the cell membrane
-composed of fatty acids, causing the lipid to be hydrophobic


A researcher mutated a critical domain of the Na+/K+ ATPase gene. When expressed in cells, the mutated protein was unable to form the E-P intermediate in the reaction cycle of the enzyme. Which of the following aa was most likely