Flashcards in Exam III Deck (84)
A condition involving colonization of the abdominal/pelvic cavity with islands of endometrial tissue, which is the lining layer of the uterus that sloughs off during menstruation. If endometrial tissue flushes up the uterine tube and spills into the abdominal cavity (peritoneal cavity) the tissue can attach to abdominal organs such as bladder, rectum, intestinal loops, and then cycle along with the uterus in response to monthly changes in ovarian hormones. Bleeding into the abdominal irritates the lining membrane, the peritoneum, and causes abdominal pain
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
although males have a closed abdominal cavity, the female abdominal cavity has a direct anatomical path from the outside world via the female reproductive tract. Bacteria can make their way up the vagina, through the uterus, and traverse the uterine tubes which open into the abdominal cavity. Inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity, the peritoneum, causes abdominal pain. Although there are many potential causes of PID, gonorrheal infection is one of them. Chronic Inflammation of the uterine tubes can occlude them resulting in infertility.
the uterus is almost directly above the vagina. In fact, the cervix, the neck region, of the uterus extends into the upper vagina. Ligaments hold the uterus in proper position so that it does not prolapse or herniate into the vagina. Severe prolapse can result in the uterine cervix protruding from the vaginal opening. Surgical repair is typically required to restore the uterus to its proper anatomical position.
literally “midwife” in Latin. A physician specializing in the diagnosis and management of pregnancy and delivering babies.
a physician specializing in diseases of the female reproductive system and surgery of this area. Most physicians currently specialize in combined practice of OB/GYN.
a surgical procedure cutting into the perineal area, the area between the vagina and anus in order to prevent tearing of tissues when the baby’s head traverses the vaginal opening.
special X-rays of the uterus and uterine tubes involving passing an opaque dye backwards up through the uterus to determine if the tubes are patent. Since the tubes are open into the abdominal (peritoneal) cavity, if patent, dye should spill out of the end of the tubes and be manifest on the X-ray.
using a magnifying instrument to inspect the interior of the vagina and cervix, the entrance to the uterus.
Dilatation and curettage (D & C)
dilating the cervix, the entrance into the uterus, and passing instruments that enable scraping off superficial layers of the endometrium. May be done as an early therapeutic abortion, or following a normal pregnancy to remove residual tissue remaining in the uterus, or may be done as a diagnostic procedure to examine lining tissue of the uterus.
Surgical reconstruction of the breast may involve breast enlargement or reduction or cosmetic reconstruction after mastectomy. What are the risk factors of developing breast cancer? Check out this women’s health link for answers.
An anesthetic administered to block sensation around the lower vagina and perineum. This facilitates performing an episiotomy (see above) allowing passage of the baby’s head while avoiding uncontrolled tearing of tissues. By the way, pudendal, an ancient name for external genitalia, means “that which we should be ashamed of” in Latin. Even Adam and Eve wore fig leaves!
(Latin, “breaking off”). Premature separation of a normally implanted placenta before full term. Occurs in only about 1% of pregnancies. However, it has a 20-40% fetal mortality rate and is a significant contributor to maternal mortality.
(Latin, “leading the way”). A placenta implanted over the cervical region of the uterus blocking the entrance to the birth canal. Occurs in less than one percent of pregnancies, but can cause significant bleeding and require a complicated delivery.
(toxemia of pregnancy )- a serious and life-threatening condition that may develop during pregnancy involving hypertension, convulsions and coma. A less severe form, preeclampsia, may develop but can be managed if identified and treated early.
(Greek, “out of place”). A pregnancy implanted anywhere outside of the uterus. The uterine tube (Fallopian tube) is the most common location, also called a “tubal pregnancy”. The abdominal cavity is the least common location. Occurs in about 2% of pregnancies. When it occurs, it is a surgical emergency, because the uterine tube cannot sustain tremendous expansion like the uterus. Eventually, the uterine tube will rupture with severe, possibly fatal, hemorrhaging.