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Flashcards in EXAM III Final Deck (106)
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61

During which week of gestation does each mesonephric duct form a ureteric bud/metanephric diverticulum?

a. Week 1
b. Week 2
c. Week 3
d. Week 4
e. Week 5

Week 5; ureteric buds grow into the surrounding mesenchyme of the mesonephric ridge

62

The adult ureter, renal pelvis, and collecting tubules are derived from which of the following?

a. Pronephros
b. Mesonephros
c. Metanephros
d. Renal pelvis

Metanephros

63

What does the blastemata of the metanephric diverticula give rise to?

a. Ureter
b. Renal pelvis
c. Renal tubules
d. Cloaca

Renal tubules

64

During ureteric bud outgrowth via the metanephrogenic blastema, which of the following causes GDNF to be repressed in anterior regions?

a. Slit-2/Robo-2
b. WT-1
c. Sprouty
d. BMP
e. Gremlin

Slit-2/Robo-2

65

What is the function of gremlin during the formation of the ureteric bud outgrowth from the metanephrogenic blastema?

a. Make the ureter epithelium impermeable to water
b. Reduces sensitivity of anterior mesonephric duct to GDNF
c. Represses GDNF in anterior regions
d. Inhibits BMP in the region of the metanephrogenic blastema

d. Inhibits BMP in the region of the metanephrogenic blastema

66

Which of the following can be caused from infants born with bilateral renal agenesis that have a flattened nose, wide interpupillary space, a receding chin, tapering fingers, low-set ears, hip dislocation, and pulmonary hypoplasia?

a. Potter sequence
b. Horseshoe kidney
c. Polycystic kidney disease
d. Exstrophy of the bladder
e. Renal Hypoplasia

Potter sequence - renal agenesis causes oligohydramnios = pulmonary hypoplasia, flattened face and ears, hip dislocation

67

Which of the following is a major defect in which the urinary bladder opens broadly onto the abdominal wall? Most commonly attributed to an insufficiency of mesodermal tissue of the ventral abdominal wall.

a. Potter sequence
b. Horseshoe kidney
c. Polycystic kidney disease
d. Exstrophy of the bladder
e. Renal Hypoplasia

Exstrophy of the bladder

68

Where are sex cords located and what do they have the potential to give rise to if the bipotential system turns into a male?

Within the medulla of the indifferent gonad

Seminiferous tubules (Sertoli cells) and interstitial cells

69

Which of the following anastomoses with the sex cords in the genetic male? What does this become if a genetic female is determined?

a. Tunica albuginea
b. Seminiferous tubules
c. Rete cords
d. Sertoli cells

Rete cords

In female = medulla regresses and cortex forms ovary

70

Where is the location of the tunica albuginea?

a. Within the medulla of the indifferent gonad
b. Within the cortex of the indifferent gonad
c. Between the medulla and cortex of the indifferent gonad
d. Degenerates before the indifferent gonad develops

Between the medulla and cortex; lies on external surface of testis and internalized in the ovary

71

What is the fate of the mesonephric tubules in the male and female?

Female = nothing forms

Male = efferent ductules coveying sperm to the exterior

72

What does the genital tubercle give rise to in male and female?

Male - Glans penis

Female - clit

73

What does the genital folds give rise to in male and female?

Male - shaft

Female - labia minora

74

What does the genital swellings give rise to in male and female?

Male - Scrotum

Female - Labia majora

75

What molecule allows primordial germ cells to become meiosis-competent germ cells?

a. Nanos-2
b. Stra-8
c. RA
d. Dazl
e. BMP

Dazl

76

What is the function of Dazl in the fate of primordial germ cells in male and females?

Allows for the primordial germ cell to become meiosis-competent germ cells

77

What does the primary heart field (heart crescent) form?

a. Right ventricle and atria
b. Left ventricle and atria
c. Both ventricles and atria
d. Right ventricle and left atria
e. Left ventricle and left atria

Left ventricle and atria

78

Which molecule exposes the more posterior cells of the heart that are assumed to cause the atrial identity?

a. Shh
b. Hox
c. RA
d. Wnt
e. BMP

RA

More anterior cells are not exposed to RA = ventricle

79

Hand-1 is expressed in the primary heart field (heart crescent), what occurs if there is a defect in Hand-1?

a. Defective left atrium
b. Defective right atrium
c. Defective left ventricle
d. Defective right ventricle
e. Defective heart overall

Defective left ventricle

80

What does the secondary heart field form?

a. Right ventricle and proximal outflow tract
b. Left ventricle and proximal outflow tract
c. Right atrium and proximal outflow tract
d. Left atrium and proximal outflow tract

Right ventricle and proximal outflow tract; express Hand-2

81

Hand-2 is expressed in the secondary heart field (heart crescent), what occurs if there is a defect in Hand-2?

a. Defective left atrium
b. Defective right atrium
c. Defective left ventricle
d. Defective right ventricle
e. Defective heart overall

Absence of right ventricle

82

What 3 structures does the proepicardium form?

1. Epicardium
2. Interstitial cells and vasculature smooth muscle
3. Coronary vasculature

83

Which of the following is known as the first asymmetrical embryonic structure to appear?

a. Cardiac crest
b. Left ventricle
c. Right ventricle
d. Cardiac tube

Cardiac tube; asymmetry est. by Hand-1 and Hand-2

84

What two molecules are used to establish the asymmetry of the cardiac tube?

a. Hand-1 and Hand-2
b. Pax-3 and Pax-7
c. Shh and Hox
d. Wnt and BMP

Hand-1 and Hand-2

85

Primary myocardium forms during the 3rd week of gestation while the formation of the chamber myocardium forms afterwards as atrial and ventricular chamber bulges. What two molecules guide these processes?

Primary myocardium = Tbx-2

Myocardium chamber = Tbx-5

86

Is it the primary heart field or secondary heart field that contributes most to the primary myocardium?

Secondary heart field

87

What term is used for the outflow part of the heart during cardiac looping that leads to the aortic sac and aortic arch system?

a. conus arteriosus
b. bulbus cordis
c. truncus arteriosus
d. internal septum

Bulbis cordis

88

Define conus arteriosus and truncus arteriosus

Conus = Broader proximal part of the bulbus cordis

Truncus = Narrower distal part of bulbus cordis

89

What are the characteristics of the results of cardiac looping?

S-shaped heart
Original caudal inflow part (atrium) is now dorsal to outflow part of the heart
Outflow part of heart = bulbus cordis
Internal septum begins to divide ventricle then atrium

90

List the two components of atrial partitioning

1. Interatrial septum primum (sp) - downward growth to endocardial cushion; separates atrium into left and right chambers

2. Interatrial septum secundum (ss) - to the right of sp grows dorsal to ventral part of atrium