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Flashcards in EXAM III Qs Deck (46)
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1

The cell bodies of the motoneurons of a spinal nerve arise from the:

a. Basal plate
b. Marginal zone
c. Floor plate
d. Roof plate
e. Alar plate

Basal plate

2

An infant with a tuft of hair over the lumbar region of the vertebral column undergoes surgery for a congenital anomaly in that region. During surgery, it was found that the dura and arachnoid layers over the spinal cord were complete, but that the neural arches of several vertebrae were missing. What condition did the infant have?

a. Meningocele
b. Meningomyelocele
c. Encephalocele
d. Spina bifida occulta
e. Rachischisis

Spina bifida occulta

3

Complete failure of the neural tube to close in the region of the spinal cord is:

a. Spina bifida occulta
b. Meningocele
c. Cranioschisis
d. Rachischisis
e. Myelomeningocele

Rachischisis

4

Which of these cell and tissue types arises from cranial, but not trunk, neural crest cells?

a. Sensory ganglia
b. Adrenal medulla
c. Melanocytes
d. Schwann cells
e. None of the above

None of the above

5

Which molecule is a poor substrate for migrating neural crest cells?

a. Laminin
b. Chondroitin sulfate
c. Fibronectin
d. Type IV collagen
e. Hyaluronic acid

Chondroitin sulfate

6

Neural crest cells arise from the:

a. Somite
b. Dorsal non-neural ectoderm
c. Neural tube
d. Splanchnic mesoderm
e. Yolk sac endoderm

Neural tube

7

A 6-month old infant exhibits multiple congenital defects, including a cleft palate, deafness, ocular hypertelorism, and a white forelock but otherwise dark hair on his head. The probable cause is:

a. CHARGE association
b. von Recklinghausen's disease
c. Hirshcprung's disease
d. Waardenburg's syndrome
e. None of the above

Waardenburg's syndrome

8

What molecule is involved in the migration of neural crest cells from the neural tube?

a. Slug
b. BMP-2
c. Mash 1
d. NEpi
e. Glial growth factor

Slug

9

Which is not a derivative of the neural crest?

a. Sensory neurons
b. Motoneurons
c. Schwann cells
d. Adrenal medulla
e. Dental papilla

Motoneurons

10

What maintains the competence of neural crest cells to differentiate into autonomic neurons?

a. Shh
b. Ach
c. Mash 1
d. Glial growth factor
e. TGF-beta

Mash 1

11

If trunk neural crest cells are transplanted into the cranial region, they can form all of the following types of cells except:

a. Pigment cells
b. Schwann cells
c. Sensory neurons
d. Cartilage
e. Autonomic neurons

Cartilage

12

What molecule produced by the notochord is instrumental in inducing the floor plate of the neural tube?

a. Hoxa-5
b. RA
c. Pax-3
d. Msx-1
e. Shh

Shh

13

Growth cones adhere strongly to a substrate containing:

a. Ach
b. Laminin
c. Epi
d. NEpi
e. Shh

Laminin

14

Rhombomeres are segmental divisions of the:

a. Forebrain
b. Midbrain
c. Hindbrain
d. Spinal cord
e. None of the above

Hindbrain

15

Rathke's pouch arises from the:

a. Diencephalon
b. Stomodeal ectoderm
c. Mesencephalon
d. Pharyngeal endoderm
e. Infundibulum

Stomodeal ectoderm

16

Neural crest-derived cells constitute a significant component of which tissue of the eye?

a. Neural retina
b. Lens
c. Optic nerve
d. Cornea
e. None of the above

Cornea

17

The otic placode arises through an inductive message given off by the:

a. Telencephalon
b. Rhombencephalon
c. Infundibulum
d. Diencephalon
e. Mesencephalon

Rhombencephalon

18

What molecule plays a role in guidance of advancing retinal axons through the optic nerve?

a. Pax-2
b. FGF-3
c. BMP-4
d. Pax-6
e. BMP-7

Pax-2

19

Surface ectoderm is induced to become corneal epithelium by an inductive event originating in the:

a. Optic cup
b. Chordamesoderm
c. Optic vesicle
d. Lens vesicle
e. Neural retina

Lens vesicle

20

The facial nerve (CN VII) supplies muscles derived from which pharyngeal arch?

a. First
b. Second
c. Third
d. Fourth
e. Six

Second

21

Cleft lip results from lack of fusion of the:

a. Nasomedial and nasolateral processes
b. Nasomedial and maxillary processes
c. Nasolateral and maxillary processes
d. Nasolateral and mandibular processes
e. Nasomedial and mandibular processes

Nasomedial and maxillary processes

22

In cases of holoprosencephaly, defects of facial structures are typically secondary to defects of the:

a. Pharynx
b. Oral cavity
c. Forebrain
d. Eyes
e. Hindbrain

Forebrain

23

Meckel's cartilage is a prominent structure in the early formation of the:

a. Upper jaw
b. Hard palate
c. Nasal septum
d. Soft palate
e. Lower jaw

Lower jaw

24

An early induction in tooth development consists of the ectoderm of the dental epithelium acting on the underlying neural crest mesenchyme. Which of the following molecules is an important mediator of the inductive stimulus?

a. BMP-4
b. Tenascin
c. Hoxb-13
d. Msx-1
e. Syndecan

BMP-4

25

Shaping of the snout involves the ear of a gradient between which of the following pairs of signals?

a. FGF-8 and Edn-1
b. Hox and pax
c. TGF-2 and BMP-4
d. FGF-8 and shh

FGF-8 and shh

26

In craniofacial development, segmentation of the cranial tubes results in expression of which of the following?

a. Sox
b. BMP
c. Hox
d. TGF

Hox

27

Except for the pharyngeal muscles, pharyngeal arch mesoderm is derived from which of the following:

a. Neural crest
b. Somitomeres
c. Paraxial mesoderm
d. Parachordal mesoderm

Neural crest

28

In molar development induction of secondary enamel knots, by the primary enamel knots followed by apoptosis of primary enamel knot is associated with which of the following:

a. Formation of future molar cusps
b. Induction of ameoloblast layer
c. Induction of odontoblast layer
d. Formation of dental sac

Formation of future molar cusps

29

At which of the following stages of tooth development does both the ameoloblast and odontoblast appear together?

a. Tooth bud stage
b. Cap stage
c. Bell stage
d. Dental sac stage

Bell stage

30

Which of the following is necessary for the tooth development to continue past the bud stage?

a. BMP-4
b. Shh
c. FGF-8
d. Pax9

Pax-9