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Define an offer

expression of willingness to contract on specified terms made with the intention that it is to become legally binding as soon as it it is accepted by the person to whom it is addressed - Trietel


Characteristics of an offer

- Sufficiently clear and certain Gibson cf Storer v MCC
- communicated to the offeree Taylor v Laird


Define consideration

the act or forbearance of one party or the promise thereof is the price of the contract and the contract is enforceable Dunlop v Selfridge


what value must consideration have?

- must be sufficient ie have some value White v Bluett
- need not be adequate to the value of hte contract Chappell v Nestle


is promised future consideration valid?

yes - Dunlop v Selfridge


can past act be good consideration

generally no (Eastwood v Kenyon)
- but can be if Pao On v Lau Yiu Long criteria met
--done at promiser's request
--parties understood the act would be rewarded
--payment would have been legally binding had it been promised in advance


how does consideration relate to the performance of public duties?

performing existing public duties cannot be good consideration (Collins v Godefroy)
- unless the performer goes beyond their legal duty (England v Davidson)


are contracts for the same act with multiple parties valid?

yes according to Scotson v Pegg and the Eurymedon


what is the main presumption relating to ICLR

presumption of no ICLR in domestic/social settings Balfour v Balfour
--can be rebutted through parties words/conduct Peck v Lateau


What is an ITT

preliminary stage of negotiation that is not sufficiently clear and certain to constitute an offer or rejection


what are adverts normally

ITT Partridge v Crittenden


what is the exception to the rule about adverts and ITT

unilateral offers eg Carlill v Carbolic - prescribing an act which, once performed, equates to acceptance
--- also obiter comments in Grainger v Gough about advertisers who are also manufacturers


what does a display of goods normally constitute

an iTT Fisher v Bell and Pharma Society of GB


what is a unilateral offer

- one made to the whole world eg Carlill v Carbolic
- can be revoked at any time before acceptance Great Northern Railway v Witham
- unless offeree has started to perform the act already Errington v Errington & Woods


What constitutes valid acceptance?

mirror image of the offer Hyde v Wrench
Silence cannot be acceptance Felthouse v Bindley


What constitutes a counter-offer

any response that attempts to change a major term is not a mirror image and is a counteroffer which kills the original offer Hyde v Wrench


What is a request for further information?

attempt to find out more about major terms
- offer remains open for acceptance Stevenson Jacques v McLean
- look for interrogatory language and enquiries about ancillary matters


what is the rule about proscribed modes of acceptance?

Manchester Diocesian v Commerical & General Investments - offeror must expressly exclude all alternative modes of acceptance eg "only" or "by no other method"

In not then Tinn v Hoffman any other mode may be valid if it is equally advantageous
- especially if they've given alternative contact details


what is the rule about instantaneous communication?

1) acceptance by instantaneous methods is deemed communicated on receipt Entores v Miles
2) if receipt fails due to the negligence of the receiving party, communication will be deemed valid Entores v Miles
3) if neither party's fault, no contract


what is the postal rule

Adams v Lindsell acceptance valid on proper posting
- therefore does not apply where letter is misaddressed Getreide Import v Contimar
- will not apply if it is unreasonable to use the post - Henthorn v Fraser
- Quenerduaine v Cole: if a prompt response is needed a letter may be unreasonable


how can the postal rule be ousted

Holwell Securities v Hughes + Household Fire v Grant - only be strong language saying you want actual receipt of acceptance


What is an option contract?

a contract keeping an offer open for a certain amount of time
- Dickinson v Dodds
- Routledge v Grant
- need consideration, agreement and ICLR like any other contract


how can a contract be revoked?

two parts:
1) some act which manifests intention to revoke
2) offeree has knowledge of this act
- acceptance after valid revocation or revocation after valid acceptance are invalid Payne v Cave


what is the rule about third party revocation

it is acceptable and need not be authorised by the offeror as long as it shows their unequivocal intention to revoke
- Dickinson v Dodds
- see criticism by Trietal


what is the criticism of third party revocation

- leaves offeree having to decide if the source of information is reliable
- suggesting that it should be communicated by the offeror only
- suggests instead the test should be "ought the third party reasonably to be believed"


how will remedies work in an agreement question?

- whoever entered the contract first is entitled to the goods
- any other party will be entitled to damages for breach of contract
- this will reflect their expectation interest; Robinson v Harman - put them in the position they would have been in had the contract been properly performed


what is an invitation to tender?

Spencer v Harding - an ITT


When will an invitation to tender be an offer?

- if the invitation states that the highest bid will be accepted Harvela v Royal Trust of Canada


when will an invitation to tender give rise to a binding contractual obligation?

- if it states teh highest bid will be accepted (Harvela v Royal Trust of Canada)
- if it asks for tenders from known parties and gets them in accordance with strict requirements, they have a duty to consider them - Blackpool & Fylde Aero Club v Blackpool


what is an auctioneer's request for bids?

an ITT Payne v Cave