Frame the interaction of a microwave oven.
Input: Cold food
Output: Hot food
Controls: door, buttons
Display: digital display, sound, light inside
Receptors: Eyes (vision), Ears (sound)
Somantic marker hypothesis?
Hyptohtesis that feelings in the body provoke emotion. Rapid heart rate = anxiety. Nausea = disgust. Important since during testing feelings can be provoked as a possible emotion. Located in the amygdala
When one sense can effecte the others. If something feels good to touch, it could affect the visuals of the object in a positive way.
Difference between correlation and causality?
Correlation: If two results correalate and shows the same results.
Causation: If, and if so only, how these results are connected. A+B? A->B? AB+C?
Example: People arriving to a train station and then the train arrives. The train didnt cause the people to arrive ant he people didnt cause the train to arrive. Both depend on a timetable.
Why is interaction important? (Especiallt experience design?)
Very soon user wont be satisfied with products that just work, user will expect easy-to-use, good looks and joyful experiencies.
Explain FF, Action and FB.
FF, Feedforward, implicates what the user should do. Semantic och direct.
Action, The action of the user.
FB, Feedback, What happens after the action is done.
That FB should be strongly connected to the action. Example a light-swith that lights up when switched.
Explain (i) Direct methods, (ii) Indirect methods, (iii) methods without the user.
Unstructured interviews: Clear goal, no guidelines, unfamiliar context
Semi-structured interview: With guidelines, open-ended questions
Focus-group: Semi-structured interview with moderator. 6-10 persons. Time-effective.
Questionnaire: Closed yes/no/multiple choice questions. Quantitative data for ex validization
Diary: Info from user under a longer period of time.
Observation: Observe how the user interact with the product.
Shadowing: Observe and ask questions about how the user interact with the product.
Methods without users:
What is Neuro-plasticity?
Lasting change to the brain during an individual's lifespan.
Difference between Affordance, Preceptual information and Percieved affordance?
Affordance: What an object can do. Example a flip button is switched, a knob is turned. Physical properties.
Perceptual information: What the object tells us: labels, colors etc.
Percieved affordance: Affordance is connected to physical things, as in digital interfaces we can look for something to give it percieved affordance. Example a shadow next to a button to make it look "pushable".
Explain frontal lobe.
Front of the brain: motor skills, planning, execution
Damage leads to: paralyzis
Explain temporal lobe:
Recognition of objects, faces, hearing
Damage leads to: hard to recognize objects, hearing problems
Love and belonging,
What traits are specific for the left/right brain?
Left: logic, mathematics, language, witing, reading
Right: creativity, art, personality, music
Explain Why What How.
Why: Needs and demands of the user
What: What should be done, functionality of the system
How: How it should be done, what technologies etc.
What is a Neuron?
Nerve-cell that recieves, processes and transmits singals in the body through Axons
Three different definitions of Interaction Design and description.
- Behaviorist: IxD is about defining behavior of artifacts, systems and environments.
- Social: Facilitating communiaction between humans with product.
- Technology: Making products useful, useable and pleasant.
Explain Partial Lobe.
Top of the brain: navigation, self-awereness, object action, attention.
If damaged: navigation issues
Means that senses are interconnected. Example: In Seatlle they built a waterfall in front of a highway. Seeing the waterfall combined with the highway made the noise of the highway more pleasant.
Explain convergent afferent.
Two unique signal comes together to on new signal: for example heart attack.
From a neuroscientific point of view: what should a designer include when designing a website to make it interesting?
Color, moving objects, contrast, evolutionary objects (faces).
The five dimensions of Interaction Design:
2D: Visual representation
3D: Physical objects
Cognitive and sensory overload? Explain
When one or more sensors is super-stimulated. Makes processing data harder. Better to split information over several senses.
Explain difference between CLI-GUI-NUI:
CLI: Coding in console
GUI: Graphical representations
NUI: touch, voice, gestures
Explain Cognitive inhibition.
Brains ability to tune out stimuli that are irrelevant
Why is it important to consider neuroscience in design?
Knowing instead of guessing could save time and effort.
How did the approach to designing artifacts change during (i) digital revolution, (ii) information revolution?
Physical & goal-oriented -> Digital & goal-oriented
Digital & goal-oriented -> Digital & Experience-oriented
Inner part of the brain responsible for decision making, monotoring, outcome prediction
The four interaction design approaches:
User-centered design: All about the user. Up to the designer to design according to users demands and needs. Users involved in the whole process.
Activity-centered design: All about the activities, not the goal.
Genius design: Design relying on the designers knowledge. If users are involved in the process it could be for validization.
System design: Design of the system, objects, etc. Not the user.