What are the 4 approaches to interaction design?
User-centered design is...?
The user knows best. The people who will use a product/service know their needs, goals and preferences. It is up to the designer to find and explore them.
Activity-centered design is...?
Focus on the activities, not the goal. A cluster of actions and decisions performed for a purpose.
System design is...?
The system (people, machines, objects, devices etc.) in focus instead of the user.
Genius design is...?
Skills and wisdom of the designer. If users are involved in the process it is often at the end for validization.
What is cognitive inhibition?
Refers to the mind's ability to tune out stimuli that are irrelevant to the task or process. Make the user shift focus. (For example a TENS-machine for pain relief.)
What is convergent afferents?
Two or more neurons may converge into another neuron (the origin of the signal is lost). For example heart attack.
What is meant by "Brain Stimulation" and what does TMS stand for?
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation is used to study brain functions and neural basis of behavior.
What is Eyetracking and what can it be used for?
Mapping/tracking the movement of the eye or where the user is looking. For validating the usability of a product/service. (Differs between male/female).
What is EEG?
Electroencephalography. A device or technology to measure brain activity.
What is meant by Affective Ventriloquism?
The emotional attributes perceived via one modality (ex. sight).
What is Synesthesia?
Merging of the senses, when stimulating one sensory pathway, others are automatically and involuntarily affected.
What is Sensorial Substitution?
To change on sensorial modality for another, for example, projecting a picture (visual) onto the forehead as vibrations (tactile).
Explain the five steps in Maslow's hierarchy of needs pyramide.
Different methods (5) for collecting user data (neuroscience).
- Behavioral observations
- Brain stimulation, TMS
Explain why the designer should think "what, how and why" when designing an interaction.
Why: Considers people's motivation and needs to use a product. Experience, emotions, needs and subjective impressions.
What: Things people can do through an interactive system. Reflected by the functionality of a product.
How: Form of interaction, concrete operations, technology involved, parameters. Framing the interaction.
What is an unstructured interview?
Interview with clear goal but no template.
What is a semi-structured interview?
Interview with template and open-ended questions. Often combined with probing (asking why and follow-up questions).
What is meant by Extreme Users?
Their needs are amplified and their struggles are more notable. Their needs are often (not always) apparent for the wider population.
What is a questionnaire?
Qlosed questions with Yes/No/Multiple-choice answers. For statistical findings and quantitative data.
Explain the method "Diaries".
In depth qualitative data. Used for gaining better understanding about people's experience and life over a longer period of time.
What is a Focus Group?
Semi-structured group interview process. Often a moderator to supervise the process. Collecting a large amount of observations in a short time span. 6-10 participants.
What is an observation?
Observe when users use a product to ID errors etc.
What is shadowing?
Like observation, but this time the user is aware of the observation. Also think-aloud protocol.
What is Neuro-Plasticity?
Lasting change to the brain throughout an individual's life course.
What is meant by Enteroception?
Perception of signals generated by the functioning of our body (heart rate, blood pressure etc.)
Explain how a Physiologically Controlled Interaction could work for a anti-sleep system inside a car.
A camera placed in the rear-view mirror tracks the driver's eye movement as well as head position. If the system detects abnormal movement the steering wheel could vibrate and alarm the driver.
Explain what the left side hemisphere and the right side hemisphere of the brain is good for/does.
Where is the Occipital Lobe placed, what does it "do" and what happens if it's damaged?
Placed in the back of the head controlling the visual system.
Damage can lead to color blindness and inhability to percieve visual movement.
What captures the users attention? (neuroscience)
- Evolutionary relevant stimuli (Faces)
- Emotional stimuli
What does people like visually? (neuroscience)
- Gestalt properties
- Mere exposure
- Golden section
What is Perceptual Fluency?
The ease with which a stimulus can be processed.. Repeated exposure of stimulus increases Perceptual Fluency.
Where is the Frontal Lobe located, what does it "do" and what happens if it's damaged?
The front of the brain, controlling ex. motor skills.
Damage could lead to paralysis.
Where is the Temporal Lobe located, what does it "do" and what happens if it's damaged?
The side of the brain, controlling ex. language, hearing and perception of sounds.
Damage could lead to hearing disabilities.
Explain the basic function of a Neuron and how it works.
Neuron's are the "brain processing unit".
Connected through Axon's in different thickness for different speed and communicates via chemical receptors and mediators: "Synapse".
Where is the Parietal Lobe placed, what does it "do" and what happens if it's damaged?
The top of the brain, towards the the back of the head. Controlls navigation and self-awereness.
Damage could lead to lack of body senses and navigation problems.
Explain the term Embodied Cognition with a simple example.
Kind of experience that come from having a body with variuos sensorimotor capacities.
- Children solve math problem better if they are told to use thier hands while thinking.
Explain "Framing the interaction" (The circle)
- Display: What kind of media can be applied in the human machine system for informing the user?
- Controls: What kind of physical or virtual devices are applied to recieve input from the user?
- Effectors: What means (actions are employed to give feedback to the machine?
- Receptors: What kind of human sensory is employed to 'sense' the machine and its intention?