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Chemistry: Grade 11 > Exam Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam Review Deck (48):
1

Electron affinity:

The energy released when an e is added

2

Ionization energy:

The energy it takes to remove an e

3

Atomic radius:

Distance from nucleus to outer shell

4

What Does electron affinity do across a period

Increases bc there r more p+ so it is harder to remove e- (less nuclear attraction)

5

What does electron affinity do down a family?

Decreases bc shells are further away so e- are easier to remove (less nuclear attraction)

6

What does ionization energy do across a period?

Increases bc there r more p+ so it is harder to remove e- (less nuclear attraction)

7

What does Ionization energy do down a period:

Decreases bc shells are further away so e- are easier to remove (less nuclear attraction)

8

What does atomic radius do across a period:

Decreases across a period bc more p+ as u go across (more nuclear attraction) shells stay same

9

What does atomic radius do down a family:

Increases bc # of shells increases as u go down the periodic table

10

Ionic characteristics:

Metalx2, non-metal + metal, total transfer of e-, ⬆️melting/boiling point, solids at room temp, hard/brittle(inorganic compounds), strong bonds, conductive, soluble, electron orbitals r separate

11

Covalent characteristics:

Non metals, shared e, ⬇️melting/boiling point, liquids+gases at room temp, relatively soft (organic compounds), weak bonds, don’t usually conduct, insoluble, e orbitals overlap

12

What happens when charge differences occur in ionic compounds:

Electrostatic attraction occurs between ions

13

What is formed when ions bond together (ionic bonding)

A crystal lattice structure is created with opposite charges

14

Polar covalent:

When sharing is not exactly equal but is still shared

15

Electronegativity:

The measure of tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons

16

Electronegativity scale:

0.0 0.5. 1.7. 4
_____________________________
non polar. Polar. Ionic

17

What happens to electronegativity across a period:

Electronegativity ⬆️ (due to p+ increasing)

18

What happens to electronegativity down a family:

Electronegativity ⬆️ (due to more energy levels that our outer e-‘s farther from pull of nucleus)

19

Scaling factor:

scaling factor = MMmolecular
———————-
MMempirical =value
(Multiply value by each number of atoms)

20

%yield =

%yield= actual
———— x100
Theoretical

21

%c=

%c= m solute(g) / v solute(ml) x100

22

how to find ppm, ppb, ppt

Pp(m) = grams x 10^6
———————
Volume (ml)
Ppb= 10^9 Ppt=10^12

23

M/m and v/v

M/m = mass solute / mass solution
V/v = v solute / v solution

24

Percent composition:

%element= MM element
——————— x100
MM compound

25

Lab data percent composition:

%element = m element
——————— x100
m compound

26

Acids produce what when reacted with active metals

Hydrogen gas

27

Acids produce what when reacted with carbonate compounds

C02

28

Strong acids occur when

# of oxygen exceeds # of hydrogen by 2 or more

29

Strong bases occurs when

Only made from group 1 or 2 metals (alkali and alkaline earth metals)

30

Strong acids and bases

Dissociates completely into ions in water

31

Titration equation:

nbMaVa = naMbVb

32

Nature of gases characteristics:

1. Gases have mass
2. Are compressible
3. Fill their container
4. Exert pressure
5. Gases diffuse
6. Pressure is dependent on temp

33

Ideal gas law:

Hypothetical gas:
-molecules occupy negligible space
-have no interactions
- obeys the gas law exactly

34

High altitude =

Low pressure

35

Low altitude =

High pressure

36

Units of STP

1 atm = 14.7 psi = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 101.3 kPa

37

Boyle’s law:

The volume of a given mass of gas is inversely proportional to its external pressure

38

Boyle’s law equation:

P1V1 = P2V2

39

Charles law:

Temp and volume are directly proportional

40

Charles law equation:

V1T2 = V2T1

41

Gay Lussac’s law:

Temp and pressure of a gas are directly related

42

Gay Lussac’s law equation:

P1T2 = P2T1

43

Combined gas law:

P1V1T2 = P2V2T1

44

Temperature:

Measure of avg. KE molecules have (KE ⬆️, temp ⬆️)

45

Avagadros law:

At same temp & pressure the volume of an ideal has occupies a volume of 22.4 L at STP.

46

Avagadros law equation:

n1 n2
— = —-
V1. V2

47

Ideal gas law equation:

PV=nRT

48

Ideal gas law stp’s:

8.314 kPa
0.0821 Pa