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Chemistry: Grade 11 > Solutions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Solutions Deck (53):
1

Solution

Homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances (1 face)

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Solute:

Part that gets dissolved (usually part present in smaller amount)

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Solvent:

Does the dissolving (Substance present in the larger amount)

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Solute + solvent =

Solution

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Alloy:

Metallic solid solution confused of 2 or more elements (elements not chemically combined and can be separated by physical means (boiling point))

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Soluble:

When something has the ability to dissolve

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Insoluble:

Does not dissolve

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Miscible:

Liquid solute dissolves in liquid solvent

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Immiscible:

Liquid solute does not dissolve in liquid solvent

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Unsaturated:

LESS THAN MAX HOLDING AMOUNT of solute (for that temp) dissolved in the solvent. (Solvent can hold more solute at a given temp)

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Saturated:

solvent had reached MAX HOLDING CAPACITY of solute at that temp (undissolved solid remains in container)

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Supersaturated:

Solvent HOLDS MORE solute than normal at this temp. (Done by heating the solution and forcing it to hold more than it's max). THESE SOLUTIONS R UNSTABLE

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X and y axis for solubility graphs:

X - temp
Y - solubility in grams

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Another word for dissolving:

Dissolution

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Rate of solution (dissolving):

How quickly a substance will dissolve

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Factors affecting rate of dissolving:

Agitation, temp, surface area, pressure, types of molar polarity

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Agitation (shake or stir)

Solubility ⬆️ as u shake or stir
- dissolving ⬆️, collisions between solvent and solute

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Temp (solid and liquid)

Temp ⬆️ solubility ⬆️
(Kinetic energy ⬆️, more collisions between solute and solvent)

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Temp in gas

More heat, less dissolves

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Surface area (solids only)

⬆️ surface area, ⬆️ solubility (particle size), ⬇️ size, more likely solute will come in contact with solvent

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Pressure (gases only)

As pressure ⬆️, solubility ⬆️

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Types of solvent (aka molar polarity)

Ionic dissolve in ionic, pulse dissolves in polar and polar ionic, non polar in non polar

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Intermolecular bonds:

Force of attraction or bonds within a molecule (i.e.; ionic or covalent)

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Intermolecular:

Force of attraction or bonds between molecules

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Polar or ionic solute dissolve in

Polar solvents

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How do solute dissolve in solvents

Moving solvent molecules climates around split MLcs. (-) ends of solvent attract to (+) ends of the solute

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What do solvent molecules do

Pull solute into solution

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Moving solvent molecules:

Spread the solute out equally throughout the solution

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Concentration:

A solution where there is a relatively large amount of diluted per unit v of solution

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C=

Quantity of solute
-------------------
Quantity of solution (solute + solvent)

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Unsaturated has:

No solute visible, solvent is capable of holding more solute at given temp

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Saturated has:

Max holding capacity

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% C

M of solute
---------- X100
V of solution

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Ppm

X10 to the 6

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Ppb

X 10 to the 9

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Ppt

X 10 to the 12pp

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Ppm ex:

Grams x 10 to the 6
-----------------//
V

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Dilution

A solution with a relatively small amount of solute per unit v of solution

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Solution calculation:

M1v1 = m2v2

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Acids produce _____ with reaction to active metals:

H gas

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Acids produce _____ with reaction to carbonate compounds

Co2

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Arrhenius definition of acid

Substance which undergo ionization to release hydrogen ions in water

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Arrhenius definition of base

Substances that produce hydroxide ions in water

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Strong acid + base

Dissociates completely into ion in water

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Weak acids and bases:

Dissociates very slightly in solution (most bases r weak)

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PH

A figure expressing the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on the logarithmic scale

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Calculate ph:

-log [H+]

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Titration:

Laboratory process used to determines c of an acidic or basi solution

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Standard solution:

Titrating solution of unknown c with a solution of known c (standard solution goes in butter)

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Solution u are trying to find goes in

Flask

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Indicator changes colour at

Neutralization point

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End point:

When the stark colour change occurs

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Titration equation :

nbMaVa = naMbVb