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Flashcards in Exam Review: Bio Deck (65):
1

What are prokaryotes?

-No nucleus
-No organelles

2

What are eukaryotes?

-Complex cells
-Contain nucleus & organelles
-Surrounded by a thin membrane

3

Table describing how cells/organisms can be classified?

Cell (organism)

Prokaryote, Eukaryote

Uni-cellular, Multicellular

Plant, Animal

4

What does cytoplasm do?

-In plant and animal cells

-Mostly water, stores substances

-Chemical reactions
-Allows organelles to move around

5

What does the cell membrane do?

-Plant and animal cells

-Flexible, double layered

-Support the cell, semi-permeable (allows only some substances to pass through)

6

What does the nucleus do?

-Plant and animal cells

-Fairly spherical

-Contains genetic information
-Controls activities of cell
-Holds DNA

7

What does mitochondria do?

-Plant and animal cells

-Oval structure, looks like a hotdog

-Converts stored energy to a more usable form
-Powerhouse of the cell
-Cellular respiration
(C6H12O6 + O2 -> H2O + CO2 + atp)

8

What does the ER do?

-Plant and animal cells

-Network of tubes and pockets

-Transports materials (proteins) around the cell

9

What do Golgi bodies do?

-Plant and animal cells

-Long and tubular

-Collect and process materials to be removed from the cell
-Makes and secrets mucus

10

What do vacuoles do?

-Plant and animal cells

-Single membrane in the form of a sack (fluid filled)

-Vary depending on the cell
-Contain substances, removing unwanted ones

11

What does the cell wall do?

-plant cells ONLY

-Rigid and porous

-Supports the cell
-Protection from physical injury

12

What do chloroplasts do?

-Plant cells ONLY

-Absorb sunlight and use it in conjunction with water and carbon dioxide to make food for the plant

Sun + CO2 + H2O -> C6H12O6 + O2

13

What do ribosomes do?

-Plant and animal cells

-RNA is made into protein for the cell
-Often float around in cytoplasm or are bound to Rough ER

14

Explain the cell cycle

1. Interphase
-Cell growth
-DNA reproduction
-Preparation for mitosis

2. Cell division
Mitosis
(Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase)

3. Cytokinesis (cell splits)

15

Prophase?

Chromatin condenses into chromosomes, nucleolus disappears

16

Metaphase?

Chromosomes line up along the metaphase plate

17

Anaphase?

Chromosomes break at their centromeres, sister chromatids move to opposite sides of the cell

18

Telophase?

Chromosomes are at the poles, nuclear envelope is redeveloping, cytoplasm may be dividing

19

Why do cells split?

-Reproduction
-Growth (osmosis)
-Repair

20

What is the different between asexual and sexual?

Asexual:
-1 parent
-Exact genetic copies
-Genetic info from one parent

Sexual:
-2 parents
-Half of DNA
-Genetic info from both parents

21

What is cell specialization?

-Cells specialize (perform one specific function) as organism develops
-Physical and chemical differences
-Perform ONE job very well
-DNA is the same in ALL cells, they just have different gene expression

22

What are stem cells?

Stem cells can renew themselves, divide and repair/replace tissue

-Early in their life, they have the ability to become any time of cell in the human body

23

Different types of stem cells?

Embryonic

Adult

Meristematic

24

What are embryonic stem cells?

-They undergo differentiation, cells look different from eachother and perform different functions

25

What are adult stem cells?

They replace damaged tissue

26

What are meristematic stem cells?

(Plant cells) produces new cells

27

Specialized Animal Cells

Red blood cell, Bone cells, White blood cells, Fat cells, Nerve cells, Skin cells, Muscle cells

(RBWFNSM)

28

Cells forming tissues?

-Different cells come together to form tissues
-Tissues are groups of cells that work together to perform a specific task

-Nerve, Connective, Muscle, Epithelial

29

Describe nerve tissue

-Information, synthesis, communication & control

-Long, thin with fine branches at the ends capable of conducting electricity

30

Describe connective tissue

-Support, strength, electricity, insulation

-Various types of cells & fibres held together by a liquid/solid/gel called matrix

31

Describe muscle tissue

-Skeletal, smooth, cardiac

-Function: movement

-Bundles of long cells called fibres that contain specialized proteins capable of shortening/contracting

32

Describe epithelial tissue

-Lining, transport, secretion, absorption
-Thin sheets, tightly packed cells

-Cover surfaces and line internal organs
-Protect from dehydration, low friction

33

Hierarchy of organisms?

Organism

Organ system

Organ

Tissue

Cell

34

What is the function of the respiratory system?

-Gas exchange from the external environment to the internal environment and to remove waste gas from the internal environment

35

Label the parts of the respiratory system

Nasal cavity
Oral cavity
Pharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Alveoli
Lungs
Diaphragm

36

What does the nasal cavity do?

-Air is filtered, warned, moistened, mucus covering all internal surfaces

37

What does the pharynx do?

-Air from nasal passage meets air from the mouth

38

What does the larynx do?

Below pharynx, top of trachea "voice box"
(Vibrating cords under muscle control)

39

What does the trachea do?

Lined with cilia, divides into two bronchi

40

What do bronchioles do?

Walls lined with cilia and cartilage, ends with clusters of alveoli

41

Describe how gas exchange works

1. Oxygen molecules diffuse from airspace in the lungs into the blood stream
Capillaries > Pulmonary vein > heart

2. CO2 blood: Pulmonary arteries > capillary surrounding airspace in the alveoli > diffuses across nuclear membrane into airspace > exhaled

42

Why can the oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse through the alveolar membrane during gas exchange?

Is it moist and 1 cell thick

43

What is breathing?

Inhaling and exhaling air to the gas exchange site

44

What is gas exchange?

Transfer of oxygen molecules into the blood and carbon monoxide molecules out

45

What is cellular respiration?

Chemical process by which all living cells obtain usable energy

46

What happens to air as it is inhaled and exhaled? (Properties)

-Moistened
-Warmed
-Filtered

47

What happens to the pressure in your chest cavity when you inhale?

Decreases

48

What happens to the pressure in your chest cavity when you exhale?

Increases

49

Describe the two components of the circulatory system

1. Cardiovascular: closed system with a pump, one way valves and plumbing tubes
2. Lymphatic: pumpless system of vessels and lymph nodes

50

What are the different types of vessels?

1. Arteries: large vessels that carry blood away from the heart
2. Arterioles: smallest divisions of arteries
3. Capillary: tiny blood vessels found in tissues
4. Venules: smallest of veins
5. Veins: large vessels that carry blood towards the heart

51

What is blood?

A substance that transports all substances that must be moved within the body (nutrients, wastes, gases, heat etc.)

52

Describe the heart (look at diagram in notes as well)

-Cardiac muscle contracts at the same time (regular beat) to move blood around body
-Divided into four hollow chambers
(Two atria, two ventricles)
-Right pumps first, then left

53

What makes up the nervous system?

Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves

54

What does the nervous system do?

-Sensing environment, coordinating appropriate responses

55

What are some different types of nerves?

1. Nerves that control voluntary muscles
2. Nerves that regulate involuntary functions
3. Nerves that carry information from sensory organs to the brain

56

What are the parts of the brain?

-Frontal lobe
-Parietal lobe
-Occipital lobe
-Temporal lobe

57

What are reflexes?

Sensory input hits is the Spinal cord which instructs muscle how to react
-Quicker because signals don't need to be transmitted to/ processed by the brain

58

Describe arteries

-99% of time carry oxygenated blood
-Thick walls
-Carry blood away from heart
-Smaller lumen where blood flows
-High pressure
-Deep inside body
-Thick, smooth muscle lining

59

Describe veins

-99% of time carry deoxygenated blood
-Thinner walks
-Backflow valves
-Carry blood to the heart
-Larger lumen
-Low pressure
-Superficial
-Thin, smooth, elastic muscle lining

60

What is a varicose vein?

Backflow valves on the vein and broken and blood rushes through instead of being pushed back

61

What does cell theory state?

1. All living things are made up of one or more cells/their products
2. The cell is the simplest unit that can carry out all life processes
3. All cells come from other cells; not non-living matter

62

How do cancer cells differ from normal cells?

A cancer cell continues to divide despite messages from the nucleus or surrounding cells to stop growing or dividing

63

What's the different between cells in a benign and malignant tumour?

Benign- lump of cells that stay together but have no serious effect on surrounding tissue

Malignant- Interferes with the fiction of neighbouring cells/tissues or even destroy them

64

What is metastasis?

Cancer cells breaking away from the original tumour and making another tumour somewhere else in the body

65

What are the ABCDs of cancer?

Asymmetry

Border

Colour

Diameter