Exam Review: Chem Flashcards Preview

Gr. 10 Science > Exam Review: Chem > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam Review: Chem Deck (37):
1

What is a molecule?

Two or more atoms that are chemically combined

2

What is an element?

A pure substance that cannot be broken down into any simpler chemical

3

What is a compound?

A pure substance composed of two or more different atoms joined together

4

What is a particle?

Any of the basic units of matter and energy

5

Atoms vs Ions?

Atoms: No charge (neutral), balance of protons and electrons, valence either full/stable or missing/unstable

Ions: Charged, imbalance of protons and electrons, stable, full valence orbits

Both: Single particles, contain protons, neutrons and electrons

6

What do ions do?

They form to fill valence orbits and become stable

7

Ions that lose electrons...

Positive charge, cation

8

Ions that gain electrons

Negative charge, anion

9

What do negative ions end in?

"Ide" eg. Sodium FluorIDE

10

Non-metal/metal ions tend to gain/lose electrons? Which is which?

Metals- tend to have few valence electrons, lose

Non-metals- tend to have more valence electrons, gain

11

Describe ionic compounds

Metal + non-metal
Metals lose electrons
Non-metals gain electrons

12

How do you name ionic compounds?

First is positive, second is negative, criss-cross the numbers, divide to get the lowest subscripts

13

HOFBrINCl

Hydrogen
Oxygen
Fluorine
Bromine
Iodine
Nitrogen
Chlorine

14

What's a polyatomic ion?

An ion made up of more than one ion that acts as a single particle

15

What is a covalent bond?

Electrons are shared so that each element can have a full outer orbit

16

Ionic compound vs Molecular compound

-Ionic bond
-Metal + Non-metal
-Give/take electrons

-Covalent bond
-2 non-metals
-Electrons shared

17

Molecular compound prefixes?

1. Mono
2. Di
3. Tri
4. Tetra
5. Penta
6. Hexa
7. Hepta
8. Octa
9. Nona
10. Deca

18

If there is only one in the first element what do you do? (molecular compound)

Omit the prefix

19

How do you draw a Lewis dot diagram?

1. Draw Symbol for element closest to Fluorine
2. Draw valence electrons with • or x
3. Add other atom(s) where there are gaps

20

Do ionic compounds dissociate?

Yes.
Eg. Na+Cl-
= Na+ , Cl-

Now exist in the water by themselves
(High conductor)
Electrolytes

21

Do molecular compounds dissociate?

Does not dissociate, remains together

(Low conductor)

22

Synthesis Reaction


Cu + O2 > CuO

23

Decomposition reaction

CuO > Cu + O

24

Double displacement

FeS + HCl > FeCl2 + H2S

25

Single displacement

Zn + HCl > ZnCl2 + H2

26

Properties of acids and bases?

Acids- H+ ion (hydrogen), water soluble, sour, conductors, reacts with metals, carbonates, hydrogen carbonates

Bases- OH- (hydroxide), water soluble, bitter, slippery, conductive, reacts with proteins

27

Can acids and bases be conductors?

Yes,they both dissolve in water to form ions

28

How do you name acids?

1. Chemical formula starts with H
2. Only one other non-metallic element
3. Add prefix "hydro"
4. Add suffix "ic"
5. Add acid at the end

Eg. HCl = Hydrochloric acid

29

What is an oxyacid?

-Contains a polyatomic ion
-Contains oxygen atom

30

How do you name oxyacids?

Ends in "ate" - Change to "ic"

Ends in "ite" - Change to "ous"

Add acid on the end

31

How do you name bases?

1. Name of positive metallic ion/polyatomic ion
2. Acid "hydroxide" at end

32

pH scale?

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

0- most acidic
14- most basic
7- neutral

33

How much does acidification and basic increase as the pH scale goes up or down?

Ten fold

34

Describe a neutralization reaction

Acids and bases react to make water and a salt
-Ionic compound
-Double displacement reaction

35

What does aqueous mean?

-Chemical in water
-Dissociates

In water or (aq) means a substance is aqueous

36

What do acids and bases do relating to protons?

Acid: gives proton
Base: takes proton

37

What is an atom?

The smallest unit of an element