Flashcards in Exam Review: Chem Deck (37):
What is a molecule?
Two or more atoms that are chemically combined
What is an element?
A pure substance that cannot be broken down into any simpler chemical
What is a compound?
A pure substance composed of two or more different atoms joined together
What is a particle?
Any of the basic units of matter and energy
Atoms vs Ions?
Atoms: No charge (neutral), balance of protons and electrons, valence either full/stable or missing/unstable
Ions: Charged, imbalance of protons and electrons, stable, full valence orbits
Both: Single particles, contain protons, neutrons and electrons
What do ions do?
They form to fill valence orbits and become stable
Ions that lose electrons...
Positive charge, cation
Ions that gain electrons
Negative charge, anion
What do negative ions end in?
"Ide" eg. Sodium FluorIDE
Non-metal/metal ions tend to gain/lose electrons? Which is which?
Metals- tend to have few valence electrons, lose
Non-metals- tend to have more valence electrons, gain
Describe ionic compounds
Metal + non-metal
Metals lose electrons
Non-metals gain electrons
How do you name ionic compounds?
First is positive, second is negative, criss-cross the numbers, divide to get the lowest subscripts
What's a polyatomic ion?
An ion made up of more than one ion that acts as a single particle
What is a covalent bond?
Electrons are shared so that each element can have a full outer orbit
Ionic compound vs Molecular compound
-Metal + Non-metal
Molecular compound prefixes?
If there is only one in the first element what do you do? (molecular compound)
Omit the prefix
How do you draw a Lewis dot diagram?
1. Draw Symbol for element closest to Fluorine
2. Draw valence electrons with • or x
3. Add other atom(s) where there are gaps
Do ionic compounds dissociate?
= Na+ , Cl-
Now exist in the water by themselves
Do molecular compounds dissociate?
Does not dissociate, remains together
Cu + O2 > CuO
CuO > Cu + O
FeS + HCl > FeCl2 + H2S
Zn + HCl > ZnCl2 + H2
Properties of acids and bases?
Acids- H+ ion (hydrogen), water soluble, sour, conductors, reacts with metals, carbonates, hydrogen carbonates
Bases- OH- (hydroxide), water soluble, bitter, slippery, conductive, reacts with proteins
Can acids and bases be conductors?
Yes,they both dissolve in water to form ions
How do you name acids?
1. Chemical formula starts with H
2. Only one other non-metallic element
3. Add prefix "hydro"
4. Add suffix "ic"
5. Add acid at the end
Eg. HCl = Hydrochloric acid
What is an oxyacid?
-Contains a polyatomic ion
-Contains oxygen atom
How do you name oxyacids?
Ends in "ate" - Change to "ic"
Ends in "ite" - Change to "ous"
Add acid on the end
How do you name bases?
1. Name of positive metallic ion/polyatomic ion
2. Acid "hydroxide" at end
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
0- most acidic
14- most basic
How much does acidification and basic increase as the pH scale goes up or down?
Describe a neutralization reaction
Acids and bases react to make water and a salt
-Double displacement reaction
What does aqueous mean?
-Chemical in water
In water or (aq) means a substance is aqueous
What do acids and bases do relating to protons?
Acid: gives proton
Base: takes proton