Flashcards in Exam Two Deck (40):

1

## de Abreu, Gathercole, and Martin (2011) found that the correlation of non-word repetition and digit recall in a memory was r = .59. Based on Cohen’s (1992) guidelines, how would you describe this effect size?

### Large

2

##
Which type of validity is typically not relevant to association claims?

-stat

-construct

-internal

-external

###
internal

((Interrogating Association Claims — Internal validity is typically not relevant to association claims because both variables are being measured, and neither is being manipulated.))

3

##
There is a strong positive association between years of education and income. The mean income for American adults in 2005 was $32,000 and the average number of years of education was 12. Mr. Lopez has 16 years of education. What would you predict about his income?

-The best estimate would be the mean income of $32,000.

- His income is probably higher than $32,000.

- His income is probably lower than $32,000.

- There isn't enough information to make a prediction about whether his income is more or less than the average.

### Income is higher than 32,000

4

## Cross-lagged designs

### cause must precede effect, only suggestive

5

##
What other information, in addition to effect size, must you know in order to determine if a correlation is statistically significant?

-direction of association

-scale of scallterplot

-sample size

-external validity

###
Sample size

((Effect Size, Sample Size, and Significance — Larger samples are less easily affected by chance so a small correlation can be significant if the sample size is large.))

6

## Nesta is making a scatterplot of the digit spans (how many numbers you can remember and repeat back) for his psychology class, with the spans for digits the students hear on one axis and the span for digits the students read on the other. The association is strong, but he notices that one student has a visual digit span that is twice as long as anyone else. What statistical validity question is he raising?

### could outliers be affecting this relationship?

7

## Longitudinal designs

###
-can rule out some casual explanations because of temporal presedence

-cant tell you cause and effect, but can predict it!

-Good to do if there's ethical implications

8

## Difficulty w longitudinal study

### hard to follow people throughout time

9

## If the relationship between two variables changes depending on the level of another variable, what is this other variable called?

###

In association research, when the relationship between two variables changes depending on the level of a third variable, the third variable is called a moderator. Gender moderates the relationship between extroversion and group conversations in Table 8.6.

10

##
Vida is studying the connection between school grades and time spent using social media. She finds a strong correlation, showing the students with lower grades spend more time using social media. She decides that before she can claim that increased use of social media causes grades to drop she must make sure that the social media came before the low grades. What criterion of causality is she concerned with?

### Temporal Presedence

11

##
When is an outlier most likely to be problematic?

-when the sample size is large and the outlier is extreme on both variables

- when the sample size is small and the outlier is extreme on one of the variables

- when the sample size is small and the outlier is extreme on both variables

-when the sample size is large and the outlier is extreme on one of the variables

### when the sample size is small and the outlier is extreme on both varibles

12

##
Professor Schwartz does a study that examines the relationship between time spent at a shopping mall and happiness. She finds that for women, the more time in the mall is associated with higher levels of happiness. She finds that for men, the more time in the mall is associated with lower levels of happiness. What is the moderator in this relationship?

### GENDER

13

## Multiple regression

### helps rule out some third variables (must be measured and ruled out)

14

## Professor Fofana wonders if there is an association between students' grades and whether they complete extra credit in his classes. He makes a scatterplot, with the number of extra credit points earned on the x-axis and the numerical grade in his course without extra credit on the y-axis. He finds that r = 0.28. What does this correlation tell him about which students take advantage of the extra credit option?

### Students w higher grades are more likely than students w lower grades to do extra credit work

15

## Professor Fofana wonders if there is an association between students' grades and whether they complete extra credit in his classes. He makes a scatterplot, with the number of extra credit points earned on the x-axis and the numerical grade in his course without extra credit on the y-axis. He finds that r = 0.28. In addition to this correlation coefficient, what other information would Professor Fofana need to determine if this result is statistically significant?

### Sample size

16

## Dr. Thompson researches gang-related crime in Chicago. She notices that more graffiti appears when there are more ice cream trucks in town. She does a study that measures the frequency of new graffiti being reported and ice cream truck sales for each week over a year. She finds a positive association between ice cream truck sales and graffiti and concludes that the ice cream trucks are encouraging graffiti. Her colleague, Dr. Richardson, points out that both ice cream sales and graffiti might be influenced by rising temperatures during the summer. What kind of problem has Dr. Richardson identified?

### third variable problem

17

## Mischel (1972) studied delay of gratification in preschoolers: Children were offered a special reward if they could wait or a less attractive treat if they chose not to wait. A follow-up study was done years later, looking at the same children as adolescents. The researchers found an association between the waiting times of the preschoolers and parents' reports of the same children's behaviors as adolescents. What is a question that one could ask to assess the construct validity of this association?

### how well was the delay of gratification measured?

18

## Mischel (1972) studied delay of gratification in preschoolers: Children were offered a special reward if they could wait or a less attractive treat if they chose not to wait. A follow-up study was done years later, looking at the same children as adolescents. The researchers found an association between the waiting times of the preschoolers and parents' reports of the same children's behaviors as adolescents. Overall, a positive relation between waiting time as a preschooler and self-control in adolescence emerged. Can a causal relationship be inferred?

### no, bc internal validity was not established

19

## Dr. Stevens wants to examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and depression. He selects a sample of American athletes who are currently training for the summer Olympic Games as his research subjects. Dr. Stevens finds no relationship between BMI and depression. What is one problem with his research design that could have kept him from finding a relationship between those variables?

###
There is a restriction of range problem

(( Olympic athletes generally have low BMIs, so Dr. Stevens may not be finding a relationship between BMI and depression because there is a restriction of range of the BMI variable.))

20

## mediation (how does it work in terms of A,B,C?)

### A causes B, and B causes C.

21

## Moderation

###
"it depends"

for one group the effect is higher than the other, we know it for sure, we've tested dit to be true.

22

## 3rd variable

### a possible, not for sure, extra cause for the results of the experiment.

23

## What type of research design involves measuring the same variables, for the same people, across different points in time?

### Longitudinal

24

## Dr. Russell did a study that found that praise provided by supervisors is associated with higher levels of work productivity only because more motivated employees are praised more often, and highly motivated people are more productive. In her findings, employee motivation is a ___________ in the relationship between praise from supervisors and work productivity.

### confounding 3rd variable

25

##
Iva is studying whether students gain weight during their first year of college. She collects weights from all the incoming freshmen in the fall, then collects weights from them again at the end of the spring term. What is the term for the correlation she finds when she compares the fall and spring weights of the students?

### Autocorrelations

26

## Professor Horvat designs a study to assess the work satisfaction and home life satisfaction of a group of graduate students. She administers the same measures of work and home life satisfaction on two occasions, one year apart. She finds that job satisfaction at the first time point is correlated with job satisfaction at the second time. What type of correlation is this?

### Autocorrelations

27

##
Professor Horvat designs a study to assess the work satisfaction and home life satisfaction of a group of graduate students. She administers the same measures of work and home life satisfaction on two occasions, one year apart. She finds that home life satisfaction measured at the first time point is strongly correlated with job satisfaction measured at the second time point. What type of correlation is this?

### Cross-lag

28

##
Professor Horvat designs a study to assess the work satisfaction and home life satisfaction of a group of graduate students. She administers the same measures of work and home life satisfaction on two occasions, one year apart. She finds that home life satisfaction measured at the first time point is strongly correlated with job satisfaction at the second time point, but there is no correlation between job satisfaction measured at the first time point and home life satisfaction measured at the second time point. Which of the three criteria for causation does Professor Horvat's study fulfill?

### Covariance and temporal precedence

29

## How do multiple-regression designs help address internal validity?

### by ruling out third variables

30

## When using multiple regression, what is the term for the variable that the researcher is most interested in explaining or predicting?

### Criterion

31

## Dr. Aarons does a study that finds that having a cognitively demanding job is associated with cognitive benefits in later years, but only among men, not among women. In her findings, gender is a _________ in the relationship between having a cognitively demanding job and cognitive benefits later in life.

### Moderator

32

## A multiple-regression analysis is run to examine third variables as a follow-up to the study indicating that boys with unusual names are more likely to commit crimes. Unusual names, ethnic backgrounds, and geographical regions are all included as predictor variables. Even after controlling for all of these variables, unusual names still predict criminal activity. Why doesn’t this study establish causation?

### There may be another third variable

33

## Dr. Samuels does a study that finds that children with unusual names are more likely to have delinquency records as adolescents because they got teased more, and the teasing makes them act out. He found that teasing is a ________ in the relationship between having an unusual name and adolescent delinquency.

### Mediator

34

## When a third variable explains the relationship between two other variables, that kind of a third variable is called a:

### Mediator

35

##
Onwuegbuzie et al. (1999) examined foreign language anxiety as a predictor of foreign language achievement. They performed a multiple-regression analysis and included other predictor variables including academic achievement, perceived scholastic competence, and perceived self-worth. What is the criterion variable?

### foreign language achievement

36

## Onwuegbuzie et al. (1999) examined foreign language anxiety as a predictor of foreign language achievement. They performed a multiple-regression analysis and included other predictor variables including academic achievement, perceived scholastic competence, and perceived self-worth. They found that foreign language anxiety was â =-0.39 and academic achievement was â = 0.29. What does this mean?

### Foreign language anxiety has a bigger effect than academic achievement does on foreign language achievement.

37

## Onwuegbuzie et al. (1999) examined foreign language anxiety as a predictor of foreign language achievement. They performed a multiple-regression analysis and included other predictor variables including academic achievement, perceived scholastic competence, and perceived self-worth. The beta for the predictor variable of perceived scholastic competence was positive and statistically significant. Why couldn’t you say that perceived scholastic competence improves foreign language achievement?

### The temporal precedence is not established and there may be another variable that accounts for the relationship.

38

## what do experiments establish

### covariance & temp pres

39

## waht do good experiments . establish as well

### internal validity

40