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Flashcards in EXAM3_L27_Metabolism Deck (32)
1

What 4 processes inside the mitochondrial matrix?

1. Acetyl CoA Synthesis
2. TCA Cycle
3. Beta Oxidation of FA's
4. Ketogenesis

2

What process of Inner mitochondrial membrane?

Oxidative phosphorylation
ETC?

3

What are the 7 Processes of the Cytosol

1. Glycolysis
2. Glycogenesis
3. Glycogenolysis
4. Pentose phosphate shunt
5. FA synthesis
6. Steroid Synthesis (SER)
7. Protein Synthesis (RER)

4

What 3 Processes in both the Cytosol and Mitochondria?

1. Gluconeogenesis
2. Urea Cycle
3. Heme Synthesis

5

Why can't Red Blood Cells oxidize pyruvate or acetyl CoA?

RBC's and Platelets lack mitochondria

6

What are the 5 vitamin precursors of the TCA Cycle?

1. Niacin -->NAD+
2. Riboflavin (b2) --> FAD
3. Thiamine (b1) --> TPP
4. Pantothenate--> Coenzyme A
5. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) --> Succinyl CoA via FAox

7

Citrate synthase is activated and inhibited by?

Activated by INSULIN
Inhibited by ATP, NADH, Succinyl CoA

8

Isocitrate dehydrogenase Activated and inhibited by?

Activated by ADP
Inhibited by ATP, NADH

9

Alpha ketogluterate dehydrogenase activated by and inhibited by?

NO ACTIVATION
Inhibited by:
1. NADH,
2, Succinyl CoA,
3. ATP
4. GTP

10

What are the two water soluble electron carriers?
(Cytosol and mitochondrial matrix)

What are their precursor?

Which one is CATABOLIC?
WHICH ONE IS ANABOLIC?

NAD+ (ox form) NADH (reduced form) - NIACIN (VitB3)
CATABOLIC 700:1 nad:nadh

NADP+/NADPH - Niacin (VitB3)
ANABOLIC

11

What are the two membrane associated electron carriers? (inner mitochondrial membrane)
what is the precursor?

FAD/FADH2
FMN/FMNH2-- (RIBOFLAVIN VitB2)

12

FMN/FMNH2 are a redox pair part of which complex in the ETC?

Complex 1--- FMNH2

13

What processes make NADH?

What processes oxidize NADH to NAD+?

Glycolysis
TCA
Beta Oxidation

Mainly ETC oxidizes NADH to NAD but also
Lactate dehydrogenase in anaerobic glycolysis

14

What processes Synthesize NADPH?

What is NADPH used for/oxidized by?

What ratio of NADP+ to NADPH?

Made by HMP Shunt-oxidative (in All cells)
Made by Malic Enzyme (in cells with mitochondria)

Oxidized in ANABOLIC reactions making new molecules

1:10 NADP+ : NADPH

NADPH is used to donate energy to anabolic reactions so the reduced form is preferred

15

What are the 6 active processes of the FED STATE?
(0-4 hours post mixed meal)

1. GLYCOLYSIS (glucose-> Acetyl CoA)
2. TCA (Acetyl CoA -> NADH + FADH2 + GTP)
3. ETC (NADH + FADH2 --> ATP + HEAT)
4. OX PHOS (with above)
4. GLYCOGENESIS (G6P -> Glycogen)
5. FA Synth de novo- (Acetyl CoA cyto --> Fat acyl-CoA)
6. TG synth- (Fat Acyl-CoA + glycerol -> TG)

16

Gluconeogenesis

Service 2 (glucose for export)
- Using precursors that are not from carbohydrates to make glucose

PYRUVATE--> Acetyl coA -> OAA >PEP> Glucose

17

Liver Glycogenolysis

Glycogen --> Glucose (for export)

18

Lipolysis

TG's --> FA's + Glycerol

19

Beta oxidation

FA's --> Acetyl CoA + NADH + FADH2

20

Ketogenesis

Acetyl CoA -> ketones (for export)

Acetyl coa > Acetoacetate> bhydroxybutyrate

21

What is the only organ that can Export or remove glucose from our blood?

What is it dependent upon?

LIVER

Dependent on hepatic portal blood glucose

22

What is Portal Blood Glucose post prandial?

10-20mM
180-360mg/DL

23

What is normal Blood Glucose post prandial?

5-8mM
90-140mg/DL

24

What is FASTING blood glucose?

3-5mM
70-100mg/DL

25

What are the two sources of blood going into the liver?

Where does all the blood drain?

Describe the blood leaving the liver.

Hepatic portal vein (nutrient rich, oxygen poor)
Hepatic Artery (oxygenated blood from general circulation)

they mix

All blood leaves via HEPATIC VEIN
- deoxygenated, detoxified, normal nutrient levels

26

What cells have Insulin receptors?
What type of receptors are they?
When signal activated what happens?

Liver, Adipose, Muscle
Receptor Tyrosine Kinase

Increases phosphatase activity > overall dephosphorylated state for metabolism specific enzyme
altered gene expression

27

What cells have glucagon receptors?

What kind of receptors are they? What effect?

LIVER ONLY!!!!
Gas-coupled receptor

cAMP> INCREASED PKA activity
INCREASED OVERALL PHOSPHORYLATED STATE

28

What cells have Epinephrine receptors?

What kind of receptors are they? What effect?

Liver, Adipose, Muscle

cAMP> INCREASED PKA activity
INCREASED OVERALL PHOSPHORYLATED STATE

29

how is energy stored?

Stored in electrons as reducing equivalents

NADH (reduced- energy rich)
NAD+ (oxidized- energy poor)

30

Does the TCA make ATP?

NO!

31

If there is too much glucose in the TCA what happens?

Fat synthesis pathway!

32

When fasting, where does the pyruvate come from to undergo gluconeogenesis?

MUSCLE BREAKDOWN-

makes glucose and ketone bodies

can't use the pyruvate form fat