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Flashcards in Examinationof thereproductiveand the hematopoieticorgans Deck (6)
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1

Examination of the reproductive organs- Indications

• Part of the general examination, health check
– Young: congenital disorders
– Old: chronic pathological processes, masses
• Direct signs; e.g. – Vaginal discharge=>vaginitis, metritis
– Silent heat, low libido=>endocrine hypofunction
• Indirect signs; e.g.
– Urination/defecation complaint prostate hyperthrophy
– Alopecia=>endocrine hypo-/ hyper function
– Systemic illness/fever, PU/PD=>pyometra


•Additional examinations

2

Male reproductive tract

• Nationale:
– Age * Young: developmental defects=>cryptorchidism, hermatophrodism
* Old: prostate hypertrophy, neoplasm

• History
– Reproductive state: intact/castrated
– Libido, fertility, internal medicine complaints
* Mating failure, infertility=>hormonal dysbalance, inflammation
* Urination/defecation problems=>prostate gland disorder
* Preputial discharge=>inflammation, infection

• Physical examination: inspection, palpation
1. SCROTUM : palpation: skin surface should be intact and of ame temperature, testes found within, though if more is find
– Skin: surface, painfulness, temperature=>scrotal dermatitis
– Content=>scrotal hernia (rare)
2. TESTES, EPIDIDYMIS – Localization, size, shape, structure, surface, painfulness, symmetry, movability, consistency
– Localization of testis/inguinal canal, abdomen = Ø descended=>cryptorchidism
– Other examination aspects
• Inflammation of testis=>orchitis
• Inflammation of epididymis=>epididymitis
• Testicular neoplasm=> can cause hormonal changes (feminisation/hypermasculinisation)
3. PENIS – Shape, size, mucosa, painfulness, consistency
– Aperture of urethra=>intactness
4. PREPUCE
– Skin, mucosae=>trauma, inflammation
– Orifice-intactness; size=>preputial stenosis =>phimosis, paraphimosis
– Discharge=>infection

5. PROSTATE GLAND
– RDP: Rectal digital palpation (to reach dorsal part of the prostate gl via rectum)
– location, size, shape, structure, surface, painfulness, symmetry, movability, consistency 
=>hypertrophy (common in older intact adult dogs)
=>tumor 
=>abscess, cyst

3

Male reproductive tract Additional examinations

• Routine laboratory tests-prostate, testes
• Radiography- penis, prostate
• Ultrasonography- testes, prostate
• Cytology, biopsy& histopathology-prostate
• Surgical castration& histopathology-testes
• Bacterial culture-prostate abscess
• Laparotomy, laparoscopy=>prostate
• (Semen evaluation, endocrine assays)

4

Examination of thefemale reproductive tract

1) Nationale
-Age
- Breed=>arturition problems – E.g. English bulldog: dystocia=>cesarean section
- Reproductive state – Neutered-urinary incontinence
– Intact- mammary gland neoplasia, pyometra – Oestrus cycles- heating, silent heating, pseudopregnancy

2) History
• Reproductivestate(seeearlier)
• Postpartum period-nursing/milkproduction↑↑ =>hypocalcaemia
• Hormone therapy=>contraception, oestrus prevention/ induction
• Abdominal distention-pregnancy, pyometra
• Vulvar discharge-vaginitis, metritis
• Neutering
• (Infertility, pregnancy, parturition, nursing)


3) Physicalexamination
1. Vulva and pervalvar area
– Skin, mucosa, shape, size, vulvar opening=>inflammation, trauma, lesion, neoplasm
– Perivulvar area: dermatitis, skinfold pyoderma
– Vulvar discharge=>mucopurulent, haemopurulent

2. Vagina
– Mucosa, surface, painfulness, consistency, deformities
• Inflammation, trauma, neoplasm – Presence of fetus

3. Abdomen(uterus, ovaries)
– ONLY if enlarged
• Pyometra, mucometra (rare disorder in cats) • Pregnancy • Tumor

4. Mammary glands
as part of routine physical exam, esp. in older intact bitches
– Location, shape, size, skin, temperature, painfulness, structure, deformities; milk • Pregnancy • Pseudopregnancy • Mastitis • Mammary gland tumor

4) Additional examinations
• Routine laboratory test
• Cytology-vaginal smears
• Microbiology-discharge, milk
• Hormone measurements-estrogen, progesterone
• Ultrasonography-uterus, ovaries
• Radiography-uterus, ovaries
• Vaginoscopy-vagina smear-microbiology

5

Examination of the bone marrow Indications

• Damage=>ONLY by indirect findings
• On the basis of pathological finding sof OTHER organs:
– Mucous membranes-anaemia
– Lymphnodes- lymhadenomegaly
• Neoplasm-leukaemia
• E.g. toxins, infections-bone marrow suppression

• ONLY additional examinations:
– Hematology-blood
– Fine needle aspiration(FNA) & cytology - lymphnodes
– Cytology/biopsy-bone marrow

6

Examination of the spleen Physical examination-palpation

• Through abdomen
– Behind the stomach, left side, tongue-shaped
– ONLY if enlarged – Normal spleen is NOT palpable
• Splenomegaly
– Infectious etiology
– Immun mediated disorders
– Tumor
– Haematoma, nodular hyperplasia
– Torsion (acute, per acute & shock signs)
-Neoplasm of the spleen (fibrosarcoma)

• Routine bloodtest/CBC
• Ultrasonography
* Radiography
• FNA / biopsy