Exams 1 and 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exams 1 and 2 Deck (31):
1

Fibrous proteins

Linear molecules, have structural role in cells. Typically only have either alpha-helices or beta-strands

2

Collagen structure

Triple helix of intertwined fibrous proteins

3

alpha-Keratin structure

Coiling of alpha-helices in fibrous proteins

4

Fibroin and beta-Keratin structure

Primarily beta-sheets

5

Oxidoreductase

Enzyme that transfers electrons

6

Transferase

Enzyme that transfers a chemical group

7

Hydrolase

Enzyme that breaks a covalent bond via hydrolysis

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Lyase

Enzyme that cleaves various bonds or adds groups to double bonds

9

Isomerase

Enzyme that produces isomers

10

Ligase

Enzyme that joins large molecules by forming covalent bonds

11

Zymogens/ Proenzymes

Inactive enzymes that are activated by cleavage of one or more peptide bonds, which produces a change in their 3-D structure

12

Isozymes

Forms of an enzyme that differ in quaternary structure, with different numbers of distinct polypeptide subunits (each form has different functions)

13

Modulator proteins

Proteins that bind to enzymes and inhibit their activity

14

Allosteric regulation

Regulation of enzymes through feedback inhibition, where the final product of a metabolic pathway binds to a site different than the active site on the first enzyme in the pathway

15

Saturated fatty acids

Stearic (18), Palmitic (16), Myristic (14), Lauric (12)

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Unsaturated fatty acids

Oleic and Linoleic (18)

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Triacylglycerols

Three fatty acids + glycerol

18

Fatty acids

Long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group (-COOH) at the end

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Glycerophospholipids

Two fatty acids and a phosphate group attached to glycerol (major lipid component of bilayer membrane)

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Sphingosine

Backbone of sphingolipids. 18 carbon molecule without carboxyl group.

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Fatty acid + Sphingosine

Ceramide

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Waxes

Result from linking the carboxyl group (-COOH) of a long-chain fatty acid and the hydroxyl group (-OH) of a long-chain alcohol.

23

Terpene

Two or more molecules of isoprene

24

Starch

Digestible chain of alpha-glucose (in plants)

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Cellulose

Non-Digestible chain of beta-glucose. Important structural polysaccharide

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Two forms of starch

alpha-Amylose (long linear chains) and alpha-amylopectin (branched)

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Glycogen

Storage form of alpha-glucose in animals. Highly branched. 10% of liver mass.

28

Chitin

Linear polymer of a chemical derivative of glucose, N-acetylglucosamine. Found in crustacean shells

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O-linked glycoproteins

Carb bound to -OH group of serine or threonine

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N-linked glycoproteins

Carb bound to nitrogen of asparagine side chains

31

Proteoglycans

Family of glycoproteins that have a special type of carbohydrate group attached called glycosaminoglycans